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 ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2011  |  Volume : 21  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 160-165

The outcome of proliferative lupus nephritis with pulse cyclophosphamide therapy


1 Department of Nephrology, Nizam's Institute of Medical Sciences, Hyderabad, India
2 Department of Pathology, Nizam's Institute of Medical Sciences, Hyderabad, India
3 Department of Nephrology, Gandhi Medical College, Hyderabad, India

Correspondence Address:
K. V. D. Murty
Department of Nephrology, Nizam's Institute of Medical Sciences, Panjagutta, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0971-4065.83933

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Proliferative lupus nephritis deserves aggressive therapy and cyclophosphamide plays a pivotal role. Thirty nine patients with proliferative lupus nephritis (Class III-7 patients and Class IV- 32 patients) with a median follow up of 38 months were considered for this observational study. All the patients received induction therapy with intravenous methylprednisolone. Cyclophosphamide was given intravenously initially in monthly pulses for six months and later quarterly pulses until remission was achieved or until the target dose (200 mg/kg) was reached. The treatment with intravenous methylprednisolone was repeated in the event of a nephritic flare. Later the corticosteroid was reduced to a minimum effective dose and cyclophosphamide was changed to either azathioprine or mycophenolate mofetil. At the time of the last follow up, 82.05% of the patients were in remission (complete remission 51.28% and partial remission 30.77%). The median interval to achieve remission in responders was 15 months. Early diagnosis (P=0.04), a higher creatinine clearance at presentation (P=0.02), and concurrent use of an ACEI or an ARB (P=007) significantly favored attaining remission. Five patients experienced a doubling of serum creatinine and one of them became dialysis dependent. Risk of doubling of serum creatinine correlated with a low Ccr (P=0.03) at presentation, occurrence of renal flares (P=0.034) and failure to achieve remission (P=0.0001). The parameters like serum creatinine, serum C3, serum C4, activity and chronicity indices on renal biopsy, hypertension were not statistically significant. Therapy with cyclophosphamide, if initiated early, helps in inducing remission and hence can retard the progression to CKD.






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Indian Journal of Nephrology
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Online since 20th Sept '07