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LETTER TO EDITOR
Year : 2014  |  Volume : 24  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 127-128
 

Epidemiology of vitamin D deficiency in West African hemodialysis patients: A pilot study from Senegal


1 Department of Nephrology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Gaston Berger University, Saint-Louis, Senegal
2 Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Health Sciences, Gaston Berger University, Saint-Louis, Senegal
3 Department of Nephrology, Aristide Le Dantec University Hospital, Plateau, Dakar, Senegal

Date of Web Publication27-Feb-2014

Correspondence Address:
S M Seck
Department of Nephrology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Gaston Berger University, Ngallele Road, BP 234, Saint-Louis
Senegal
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0971-4065.127913

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How to cite this article:
Seck S M, Cisse M M, Ka E F, Doupa D. Epidemiology of vitamin D deficiency in West African hemodialysis patients: A pilot study from Senegal. Indian J Nephrol 2014;24:127-8

How to cite this URL:
Seck S M, Cisse M M, Ka E F, Doupa D. Epidemiology of vitamin D deficiency in West African hemodialysis patients: A pilot study from Senegal. Indian J Nephrol [serial online] 2014 [cited 2018 Sep 26];24:127-8. Available from: http://www.indianjnephrol.org/text.asp?2014/24/2/127/127913


Sir,

Vitamin D deficiency is common in chronic kidney disease patients undergoing hemodialysis and is associated with bone disorders [1] and increased mortality. [2] Previous studies suggest that vitamin D deficiency is more frequent in patients with an African origin whose skin pigmentation is a barrier to ultraviolet rays necessary to 25-OH vitamin D synthesis. [1],[3] Like in many developing regions, little is currently known about vitamin D status of dialysis patients from Sub-Saharan Africa. [4] Data from black populations living in the United States or Europe might not be applicable for African patients whose dietary habits and sunlight exposures are different. We report here a pilot study that aimed to determine the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in Senegalese hemodialysis patients.

In a cross-sectional study between March 30 th and October 30 th 2011, we included 46 patients from two main hemodialysis centers in Dakar. Clinical data, serum calcium, phosphate and vitamin D levels during the last 3 months were collected from patients'medical records. All dosages of 25-OH vitamin D were performed using electrochemiluminescence immunoassay (COBAS Roche Diagnostics). Vitamin D deficiency was defined as a serum 25-OH vitamin D level <15 μg/l. Univariate and multivariate logistic regressions were used to identify the factors associated with vitamin D deficiency.

Mean age of patients was 50.3 ± 12.7 years (13-77 years) and 39.1% of them were females. All patients were dialyzed using the bicarbonate buffer and a calcium rich dialysate (1.75 mmol/l). Almost all of them (91%) had a weekly Kt/V >1.2. Thirty six patients (78.2%) presented pre-dialysis high blood pressure (≥140/90 mmHg) and six patients (13%) had a body mass index above 30 kg/m 2 . The etiologies of end-stage renal disease were dominated by hypertension (39%) and diabetes (26%).

Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency was 32.6% and 28 patients (60.8%) had a vitamin D level between 15 μg/Land 30 μg/l). This prevalence was comparable between men and women (respectively 47.3% and 50.0%, P = 0.93). After multivariate logistic regression, age ≥50 years, hypocalcemia and hyperparathyroidism showed significant association of vitamin D deficiency, but gender and hyperphosphatemia did not [Table 1].

The present results show that the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in hemodialysis patients living in Senegal is similar to those reported in Western countries. [1],[3],[5]
Table 1: Parameters associated with vitamin D deficiency

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Despite limitation due to small sample size and the cross-sectional study design, this study could be a basis for larger prospective cohort that would also assess the effect of vitamin D deficiency on bone and cardiovascular outcomes in African dialysis patients.

 
  References Top

1.Ureña-Torres P, Metzger M, Haymann JP, Karras A, Boffa JJ, Flamant M, et al. Association of kidney function, vitamin D deficiency, and circulating markers of mineral and bone disorders in CKD. Am J Kidney Dis 2011;58:544-53.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.Pilz S, Iodice S, Zittermann A, Grant WB, Gandini S. Vitamin D status and mortality risk in CKD: Ameta-analysis of prospective studies. Am J Kidney Dis 2011;58:374-82.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.Bhan I, Powe CE, Berg AH, Ankers E, Wenger JB, Karumanchi SA, et al. Bioavailable vitamin D is more tightly linked to mineral metabolism than total vitamin D in incident hemodialysis patients. Kidney Int 2012;82:84-9.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.Seck SM, Dahaba M, Ka EF, Cisse MM, Gueye S, Tal AO. Mineral and bone disease in black African hemodialysis patients: A report from Senegal. Nephrourol Mon 2012;4:613-6.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.Jean G, Charra B, Chazot C. Vitamin D deficiency and associated factors in hemodialysis patients. J Ren Nutr 2008;18:395-9.  Back to cited text no. 5
    



 
 
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