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  Table of Contents  
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2015  |  Volume : 25  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 12-15
 

Study of hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis in patients of membranous nephropathy receiving modified Ponticelli regimen


1 Department of Nephrology, PGIMER, Chandigarh, India
2 Department of Endocrinology, PGIMER, Chandigarh, India

Date of Web Publication12-Jan-2015

Correspondence Address:
H S Kohli
Department of Nephrology, PGIMER, Chandigarh
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0971-4065.136884

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  Abstract 

Pulse methyl prednisolone followed by oral prednisolone and abrupt switch to chlorambucil/cyclophosphamide (Ponticelli/modified Ponticelli regimen) is used in patients with idiopathic membranous nephropathy. This therapy where steroids are stopped abruptly is unphysiologic and expected to have hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis suppression; however, this has not been evaluated. A total of 13 consecutive adult patients with idiopathic membranous nephropathy who had completed modified Ponticelli regimen were studied. The regimen included administration of pulse methylprednisolone 1 g for 3 days followed by oral prednisolone 0.5 mg/kg/day for 27 days followed by oral cyclophosphamide at a dose of 2 mg/kg/day for the next month. This was repeated for three courses. Patients who had received corticosteroids prior to therapy were excluded. The HPA axis was evaluated after 1 month of completing the last course of steroid therapy. The evaluation was done using a low-dose adrenocorticotropic hormone stimulation test. A single intravenous bolus dose of synacthen (1 μg) was given at 9.00 am and the serum cortisol levels were estimated by radioimmunoassay at 0, 30, and 60 min. A peak cortisol level of 550 nmol/L or higher was considered as normal. Mean baseline cortisol levels was 662.3 ± 294.6 nmol/L and peak cortisol level was 767 ± 304.4 nmol/L. A total of 6 patients (46.2%) had low basal cortisol levels, only 3 (23%) had both basal and peak cortisol levels < 550 nmol/L suggestive of HPA axis suppression. To conclude, 23% of patients had suppression of HPA axis after modified Ponticelli regimen.


Keywords: Adrenal insufficiency, adrenocorticotropic hormone stimulation, membranous glomerulonephritis, nephritic syndrome, pulse methyl prednisolone


How to cite this article:
Ramachandran R, Jairam A, Bhansali A, Jha V, Gupta K L, Sakhuja V, Kohli H S. Study of hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis in patients of membranous nephropathy receiving modified Ponticelli regimen. Indian J Nephrol 2015;25:12-5

How to cite this URL:
Ramachandran R, Jairam A, Bhansali A, Jha V, Gupta K L, Sakhuja V, Kohli H S. Study of hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis in patients of membranous nephropathy receiving modified Ponticelli regimen. Indian J Nephrol [serial online] 2015 [cited 2018 Jul 19];25:12-5. Available from: http://www.indianjnephrol.org/text.asp?2015/25/1/12/136884



  Introduction Top


Over three decades ago, Ponticelli described an immunosuppressive regimen consisting of a combination of steroids and cytotoxic agents in the management of patients with idiopathic membranous nephropathy. [1] Ever since, this treatment has been in vogue and has been popularly known as the Ponticelli regimen. This therapy is of 6 months duration with corticosteroids being given on 1 st , 3 rd , and 5 th month and chlorambucil in the 2 nd , 4 th , and 6 th month, respectively. [1],[2] In a prospective randomized controlled trial where in cyclophosphamide was used in place of cyclophosphamide (modified Ponticelli regimen) not only better remission, but also preservation of kidney function was observed. [3] Each steroid course is initiated with pulse methylprednisolone 1 g/day for 3 days followed by prednisolone 0.5 mg/kg/day for the remaining 27 days. At the end of the 1 st , 3 rd , and 5 th months in which the patient receives steroids, there is an abrupt change over to chlorambucil or cyclophosphamide in Ponticelli and modified Ponticelli regimen respectively without any steroid tapering. [3]

A well-documented adverse effect of steroid treatment is suppression of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis. [4] Any patient who has received 20-30 mg/day of prednisone or more for more than 5 days is at risk for the above complication. [5] These patients are at risk of adrenal crisis when subjected to stress. A slow taper of corticosteroid therapy may facilitate recovery of HPA axis.

Modified Ponticelli regimen has been the recommended standard of care in the management of patients with active immunogen (IMGN). However, the steroids are stopped abruptly without any tapering in the 1 st , 3 rd , and 5 th month resulting in inability of the adrenal gland to return to their normal physiological secretion. However, there are no data available to justify the above statement and this study was undertaken to evaluate HPA in patients of IMGN.


  Materials and Methods Top


Thirteen consecutive adult patients with idiopathic membranous nephropathy (age >18 years) who were complaint and successfully completed modified Ponticelli regimen were included in the study. The regimen included administration of intravenous (IV) pulse methylprednisolone 1 g over 1 h for three consecutive days followed by oral prednisolone 0.5 mg/kg/day for 27 days. This was followed by oral cyclophosphamide at a dose of 2 mg/kg/day for the next month. The whole cycle was repeated for a total of three courses. [3] Patients who had received corticosteroids prior to starting Ponticelli regimen or any clinical history suggestive of prior adrenal disease and the HPA suppression, prior comorbidities (diabetes mellitus and asthma) and patients who received hepatic cytochrome inducer/inhibitor or any other drugs, which could affect the steroid levels or HPA axis were excluded from the study.

Protocol

The HPA axis was evaluated after 1 month of completing the last course of steroid therapy. The evaluation was done using a low dose (1 μg) adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) stimulation test. [6],[7] Informed consent was taken, and the patients were given a single bolus dose of synacthen (1 μg) IV at 9.00 am after collecting the basal samples (0 min) (1 mcg was used instead of 250 mcg, as the latter dose would be too high in patients with prior normal functioning adrenals). Further samples were drawn at 30 and 60 min after ACTH dose for cortisol measurement.

Assay

Serum total cortisol was performed using radioimmunoassay (Beckman Coulter). Results were obtained from the standard curve by interpolation. The lowest detection limit of the assay was 5 nmol/L. The intra- and inter-assay coefficient of variation being <8%. A peak cortisol level of >550 nmol/L or higher was considered as a normal response to the test.


  Results Top


A total of 13 patients (8 males and 5 females) were included in the study. Mean age was 34 ± 6.7 years. The results of the ACTH stimulation test of the 13 patients are as in [Table 1]. Mean baseline cortisol level was 662.3 ± 294.6 (300-1100) nmol/L and mean peak cortisol level was 767 ± 304.4 (330-1200) nmol/L. A total of 6 patients (46.2%) had low basal cortisol levels (<550 nmol/L). However, only 3 (23%) had both basal and peak cortisol levels <550 nmol/L suggestive of HPA axis suppression. None of the patients had symptomatic adrenal insufficiency. No untoward incident was observed in patients undergoing the test.
Table 1: Results of the low dose synacthen test (cortisol levels in nmol/L)

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  Discussion Top


Alternating cycles of steroids and cytotoxic agents are the recommended as the first-line agent for the management of idiopathic membranous glomerulonephritis. At present, this is the only therapy to have long-term preservation of renal function in patients with idiopathic membranous glomerulonephritis. [3] The true prevalence of HPA axis suppression following a course of corticosteroid therapy is not known. This is probably because high-dose glucocorticoids are seldom abruptly stopped. Gradual steroid dosage taper may allow recovery of HPA axis. Most physicians have developed their own individual schedules in tapering steroids. No prospective studies have defined optimal methods of dosage reduction. Since the symptoms and signs of adrenal insufficiency are nonspecific, confirming the diagnosis requires documentation of subnormal cortisol levels that remain inappropriately low despite provocation. [8]

Traditional testing of HPA axis function has relied essentially upon insulin induced hypoglycemia or metyrapone challenge. [8],[9] However, both of these tests are uncomfortable for patients and can also have serious adverse effects. The short ACTH test using 250 μg of ACTH has been validated by several studies as a good measure of HPA axis function. [10],[11] It does not have the side-effect profile of the previous tests. However, the dose of ACTH used may produce supraphysiologic plasma levels and may result in a normal plasma cortisol level in patients with partial adrenocortical insufficiency. The low dose (1 μg) ACTH test overcomes this problem and has been proved to be more sensitive than the conventional ACTH test. [12],[13] The same was used in this study. Estimation of free cortisol would be more appropriate than total cortisol in patients of nephrotic syndrome due to loss of cortisol binding globulin (CBG) in urine. However, due to lack of facility for estimation of free cortisol/CBG, only total cortisol levels were estimated.

It is surprising that despite the unusual regime of steroids used by Ponticelli, there have been no studies until date of its effect on the HPA axis. However, in idiopathic nephrotic syndrome in children, Moel et al. have reported a low prevalence of HPA axis suppression. [14] Nine of the 10 frequent relapsers had a normal ACTH stimulation test, whereas all infrequent relapsers had normal responses. Twenty percent of our patients had evidence of HPA axis suppression. This significantly higher prevalence could be because of the sudden cessation of steroids in the Ponticelli regimen. It would have been ideal to have a comparison cohort of IMGN, where in steroids are not given but it would be difficult to find a comparative group, as the alternative therapy for membranous glomerulonephritis is calcineurin inhibitors (cyclosporine or tacrolimus) along with low dose steroids.

The exact glucocorticoid dose or duration of therapy that leads to HPA axis suppression is not well-defined. In another study of 184 children with steroid sensitive nephrotic syndrome treated with varying duration of steroids (2-6 months), HPA axis was studied in 67 by the synacthen test. [15] There was no significant correlation between suppression of adrenocortical function and treatment duration. A similar result is reflected in our study. Although all the patients received almost the same cumulative dose and duration of therapy, only 3/13 patients showed HPA axis suppression. We suspect that must be additional factors other than abrupt cessation that determine if a patient is destined to develop HPA axis suppression. Patients whose HPA axis is suppressed may require a prolonged period for recovery, which may extend even up to 1-year. Hence, they may need to take glucocorticoid supplements at times of illness or injury until the axis recovers. HPA axis needs to be tested in the patients of idiopathic membranous nephropathy on Ponticelli/modified Ponticelli regimen.

Nearly half our patients had basal cortisol levels <550 nmol/L, of which only 23% had <550 nmol/L after ACTH administration suggesting an intact axis in the majority. Thus low basal levels of cortisol do not necessarily predict HPA axis suppression and a stimulation test need to be performed to detect these cases. None of our patients had symptomatic HPA axis suppression. Doi et al. [16] have suggested a cut-off value of 600 nmol/L after ACTH stimulation as diagnostic of HPA axis suppression, while values between 400 and 600 nmol/L are in gray area. If we take 600 nmol/L as the cut-off limit then 4 in place of 3 would have adrenal insufficiency. We have taken a cut-off of 550 nmol/L based on our experience at this center. [7] In this study, HPA axis was studied 1 month after completion of the regimen, which could have given some time for HPA axis to recover. HPA axis suppression could have been higher if it was tested immediately after the completion of 1 st cycle.


  Conclusion Top


This study shows a 23% prevalence of asymptomatic HPA axis suppression after completion of the modified Ponticelli regimen for treatment of idiopathic membranous nephropathy, after a sudden cessation of steroid therapy. HPA axis needs to be tested in these patients. This side-effect of corticosteroid therapy can be detected only by an appropriate provocative test.

 
  References Top

1.
Ponticelli C, Zucchelli P, Imbasciati E, Cagnoli L, Pozzi C, Passerini P, et al. Controlled trial of methylprednisolone and chlorambucil in idiopathic membranous nephropathy. N Engl J Med 1984;310:946-50.  Back to cited text no. 1
[PUBMED]    
2.
Ponticelli C, Altieri P, Scolari F, Passerini P, Roccatello D, Cesana B, et al. A randomized study comparing methylprednisolone plus chlorambucil versus methylprednisolone plus cyclophosphamide in idiopathic membranous nephropathy. J Am Soc Nephrol 1998;9:444-50.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Jha V, Ganguli A, Saha TK, Kohli HS, Sud K, Gupta KL, et al. A randomized, controlled trial of steroids and cyclophosphamide in adults with nephrotic syndrome caused by idiopathic membranous nephropathy. J Am Soc Nephrol 2007;18:1899-904.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Krasner AS. Glucocorticoid-induced adrenal insufficiency. JAMA 1999;282:671-6.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Axelrod L. Glucocorticoids. In: Kelly WN, Harris ED Jr, Ruddy S, Sledge CB, editors. Text Book of Rheumatology. Philadelphia, USA: WB Saunders; 1993. p. 779-91.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Dash RJ, England BG, Midgley AR Jr, Niswender GD. A specific, non-chromatographic radioimmunoassay for human plasma cortisol. Steroids 1975;26:647-61.  Back to cited text no. 6
[PUBMED]    
7.
Talwar V, Lodha S, Dash RJ. Assessing the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical axis using physiological doses of adrenocorticotropic hormone. QJM 1998;91:285-90.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Fish HR, Chernow B, O′Brian JT. Endocrine and neurophysiologic responses of the pituitary to insulin-induced hypoglycemia: A review. Metabolism 1986;35:763-80.  Back to cited text no. 8
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9.
Streeten DH, Anderson GH Jr, Bonaventura MM. The potential for serious consequences from misinterpreting normal resposes to the rapid adrenocorticotropin test. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1996;81:285-90.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
Dorin RI, Qualls CR, Crapo LM. Diagnosis of adrenal insufficiency. Ann Intern Med 2003;139:194-204.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.
Kane KF, Emery P, Sheppard MC, Stewart PM. Assessing the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis in patients on long-term glucocorticoid therapy: The short synacthen versus the insulin tolerance test. QJM 1995;88:263-7.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.
Dichstein G, Arad E, Shechner C. Low dose ACTH stimulation test. Endocrinologist 1997;7:285-93.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
13.
Abdu TA, Elhadd TA, Neary R, Clayton RN. There is enough evidence in favor of low does ACTH test. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1999;84:2973-4.  Back to cited text no. 13
[PUBMED]    
14.
Moel DI, Kwun YA, Teitcher J. Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) function in adrenocortical steroid treated minimal change nephrotic syndrome. Clin Nephrol 1980;14:36-41.  Back to cited text no. 14
[PUBMED]    
15.
Ksiazek J. The influence of the initial prednisone treatment period on the adrenal function and the further course of the disease in steroid sensitive nephrotic syndrome in children. Pediatr Pol 1995;70:15-23.  Back to cited text no. 15
    
16.
Doi SA, Lasheen I, Al-Humood K, Al-Shoumer KA. Relationship between cortisol increment and basal cortisol: Implications for the low-dose short adrenocorticotropic hormone stimulation test. Clin Chem 2006;52:746-9.  Back to cited text no. 16
    



 
 
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