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Year : 2015  |  Volume : 25  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 86-90

Acute kidney injury in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection

1 Department of Nephrology, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banares Hindu University, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, India
2 Department of Medicine, TNMC, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India
3 Department of Pathology, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banares Hindu University, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, India
4 Department of Medicine, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banares Hindu University, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. J Prakash
Department of Nephrology, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi - 221 005, Uttar Pradesh
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/0971-4065.138696

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Acute kidney injury (AKI) is an important cause of hospitalization and morbidity in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients. However, the data on AKI in such patients is limited. The aim of the present study was to analyze the incidence, causes and outcome of AKI in HIV-positive patients from our antiretroviral therapy centre. All HIV-positive patients were evaluated for evidence of clinical AKI. AKI was noted in 138/3540 (3.9%) patients. Of 138 AKI patients, 96 (69.6%) had acquired immuno deficiency syndrome and 42 (30.4%) were HIV seropositive. Majority of AKI patients belonged to AKI network (AKIN) Stage II (42%) or III (48.5%) at presentation. Prerenal, intrinsic and postrenal AKI were noted in 53.6%, 44.2% and 2.2% of cases, respectively. Hypovolemia (44.2%) and sepsis (14.5%) contributed to AKI in vast majority of cases. AKI was multifactorial (volume depletion, sepsis and drugs) in 39% of patients. Acute tubular necrosis (ATN) was the most common intrinsic lesion. Acute interstitial nephritis and diffuse endocapillary proliferative glomerulonephritis were noted in five and two cases, respectively. In-hospital mortality was 24.64%. Lower CD4 count, decreased serum albumin level and Stage 4 WHO disease were associated with higher mortality. At 3 months or more follow-up complete recovery of renal function, chronic kidney disease Stage 3-5 and progression to end stage renal disease were noted in 58.69%, 14.5% and 2.2% of cases, respectively. Thus, prerenal factors and ischemic ATN were the most common cause of AKI in HIV-infected patients. Recovery of renal function was seen in 59% of cases, but AKI had high in-hospital mortality.


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Indian Journal of Nephrology
Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow
Online since 20th Sept '07