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  Table of Contents  
IMAGES IN NEPHROLOGY
Year : 2016  |  Volume : 26  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 302-303
 

Microfilaria associated macroscopic hematuria and nephrotic range proteinuria


1 Department of Nephrology, Manipal Hospital, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India
2 Department of Pathology, Manipal Hospital, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India

Date of Web Publication1-Jul-2016

Correspondence Address:
G K Prakash
Department of Nephrology, Manipal Hospital, Rustom Bagh, Bengaluru - 560 017, Karnataka
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0971-4065.161025

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How to cite this article:
Prakash G K, Vankalakunti M, Ballal H S. Microfilaria associated macroscopic hematuria and nephrotic range proteinuria. Indian J Nephrol 2016;26:302-3

How to cite this URL:
Prakash G K, Vankalakunti M, Ballal H S. Microfilaria associated macroscopic hematuria and nephrotic range proteinuria. Indian J Nephrol [serial online] 2016 [cited 2019 Sep 19];26:302-3. Available from: http://www.indianjnephrol.org/text.asp?2016/26/4/302/161025




A 57-year-old male, a case of diabetes mellitus and hypertension since 10 years presented with painless macroscopic hematuria of 1-month duration. He did not have diabetic retinopathy, and the urological examination was also normal, performed in view of macroscopic hematuria. Systemic examination revealed blood pressure of 140/80 mm of Hg, and absence of edema. Urine analysis showed 3+ protein, numerous red blood cells (RBC's), and 3–4 white blood cells. Urine culture showed no growth. 24 h urine protein was 3.21 g. Serum creatinine was 0.7 mg/dl, serum albumin was 4.2 g/dl, serum cholesterol was 240 mg/dl. Urine fat solvent ether test was negative. Urine for triglycerides was also negative. Complete blood count was normal.

A kidney biopsy performed in view of macroscopic hematuria and absence of diabetic retinopathy showed 12 glomeruli. Five of them showed microfilariae in the capillary lumen with no diabetic nephropathic changes [Figure 1]. Immunofluorescence study (Immunoglobulins-G, A, M and Complements-C3, C1q, and light chains-Kappa, Lambda) was negative. The patient was treated with oral diethylcarbamazine 6 mg/Kg/day in three divided doses for 21 days. On follow-up after 1-month, his urine examination revealed total disappearance of RBC's and protein.
Figure 1: Glomerular capillary lumen are infested by microfilariae (arrow), possessing parallel arranged nuclei throughout its length and covered by sheath on external aspect (×100, PAS)

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The patient hailed from northern part of Karnataka (BIDAR) where wuchereria bancrofti is endemic. The nephrotic range of proteinuria in filariasis is known to occur.[1],[2],[3],[4] Ether test and triglyceride tests were negative in our case, probably due to the absence of significant lymphatic obstruction and thereby no significant chyluria. There are two ways by which microfilariae can cause glomerular disease, either by direct physical invasion or as an immune-mediated disease.[5] The latter group of diseases includes mesangioproliferative glomerulonephritis (GN), mesangiocapillary GN, membranous GN or collapsing variant of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis.[6]

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Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.

 
  References Top

1.
Sundar S, Venkataramanan K, Verma H, Bhardwaj M, Mahapatr HS. Filariasis, with chyluria and nephrotic range proteinuria. J Assoc Physicians India 2013;61:487-9.  Back to cited text no. 1
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2.
Vankalakunti M, Jha PK, Ravishankar B, Vishwanath S, Rampure S, Ballal HS. Microfilariae-associated nephrotic range proteinuria. Kidney Int 2011;79:1152.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Rao RV, Anupindi L, Chatterjee A, Varghese GK, Krishnanand BR. Filarial nephritis: A cause of nephrotic syndrome. Trop Geogr Med 1993;45:180-1.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Cheng JT, Mohan S, Nasr SH, D'Agati VD. Chyluria presenting as milky urine and nephrotic-range proteinuria. Kidney Int 2006;70:1518-22.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Chugh KS, Singhal PC, Tewari SC, Nath IV, Datta BN. Acute glomerulonephritis associated with filariasis. Am J Trop Med Hyg 1978;27:630-1.  Back to cited text no. 5
[PUBMED]    
6.
Diamond E, Schapira HE. Chyluria – A review of the literature. Urology 1985;26:427-31.  Back to cited text no. 6
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