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 ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2017  |  Volume : 27  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 44-50

Study of anemia in nondialysis dependent chronic kidney disease with special reference to serum hepcidin


1 Department of Medicine, VMMC and Safdarjung Hospital, New Delhi, India
2 Department of Hematology, VMMC and Safdarjung Hospital, New Delhi, India
3 Department of Biochemistry, VMMC and Safdarjung Hospital, New Delhi, India

Correspondence Address:
H Goyal
Room No. 22 Doctor's Hostel, Safdarjung Hospital, New Delhi
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0971-4065.179301

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We studied the role of serum hepcidin in anemia of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in a hospital-based cross-sectional study. Serum hepcidin, ferritin, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) levels were evaluated in patients of CKD. Hepcidin levels were increased in patients as compared to healthy adults. Hepcidin levels increased as CKD progressed through stage 3–5 (P trend = 0.015) but did not correlate with estimated glomerular filtration rate. Hepcidin correlated positively with ferritin (P < 0.0001) and transferrin saturation (TSAT) (P = 0.0217) and negatively with erythropoietin (EPO) levels (P = 0.0258) but did not correlate with either hsCRP or estimated glomerular filtration rate. Iron status influenced hepcidin levels of patients. Patients were divided according to iron status on the basis of TSAT and serum ferritin levels. We observed that while absolute iron deficiency (transferrin saturation <20%, ferritin <40 ng/ml) is associated with downregulation of hepcidin, hepcidin is elevated in other two categories of CKD patients (P = 0.0039). Iron status of patients also influenced interaction between hepcidin and hemoglobin (Hb). Hepcidin correlated negatively with Hb in patients with sufficient iron status (r = −0.7452, P< 0.0001) but nearly correlated positively with Hb in patients with absolute iron deficiency (r = 0.9428, P = 0.0572). Almost similar association persisted when cutoff value for serum ferritin was raised to 100 ng/ml as per NKF/KDOQI 2006 clinical practice guidelines except that no association was observed in absolute iron deficiency category. Cutoff value for hepcidin for differentiating absolute iron deficiency from other categories in our study population is ≤ 34 ng/ml (area under curve = 0.836, P< 0.0001). In conclusion, serum hepcidin level is increased in nondialysis CKD patients as compared to healthy adults possibly due to associated inflammation and decreased renal clearance. Furthermore, iron status modifies hepcidin level and its association with Hb. Raised hepcidin can predict the need for parenteral iron therapy and need for higher dose of recombinant human EPO to overcome iron-restricted erythropoiesis.






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Indian Journal of Nephrology
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Online since 20th Sept '07