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 ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2017  |  Volume : 27  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 277-283

Impact of malnutrition, inflammation, and atherosclerosis on the outcome in hemodialysis patients


Department of Nephrology, Apollo Hospitals, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India

Correspondence Address:
B B Kirushnan
Flat No. 11, Shanty Enclave, No. 25, Venkatakrishna Road, R. A. Puram, Chennai - 600 028, Tamil Nadu
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0971-4065.202830

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Malnutrition, inflammation, and atherosclerosis are significant problems in patients on hemodialysis. A prospective, observational study in 100 hemodialysis patients for 2 years was conducted. The primary outcomes were hospitalizations and mortality at the end of 2 years. The mean age was 61 ± 11.3 years and 69% were male. Seven patients did not complete the study (five underwent transplant and two were shifted to other units). Serum albumin was significantly lower in malnourished patients at 6 months from the beginning of the study period (3.58 vs. 3.79 g/dl, P = 0.001). Malnutrition based on subjective global assessment (SGA) was seen in 30 (32%) patients: mild to moderate in 27 (29%) and severe in 3 (3%). Inflammation was seen in 73 (78.5%) patients and intimal-medial thickness of >1.1 mm indicating significant atherosclerosis was seen in 73 (78.5%) patients. Modified SGA score and malnutrition-inflammation score (MIS) were significantly more in the malnourished group. Statistically significant association was seen between hospitalization and mortality in the malnourished population, and the odds ratio of death in malnourished patients was 9.83 (95% confidence interval: 2.8–34.3, P< 0.001). There was a moderate correlation between malnutrition assessed by modified SGA and MIS score (r = 0.54, P< 0.001). Mortality rate was 37% in patients with mild to moderate and 67% in severe malnutrition. Hospital admission was seen in 43 (46%) patients and was significantly more common in malnourished compared to well-nourished patients (77% vs. 32%, P< 0.001). Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that malnutrition by Modified SGA was the only significant variable associated with mortality at 2 years, and addition of MIS score did not improve the predictive ability of the model to modified SGA. We recommend the use of modified SGA and serial serum albumin to monitor nutrition in hemodialysis patients.






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Indian Journal of Nephrology
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