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  ~ Table of Contents - Current issue
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July-August 2017
Volume 27 | Issue 4
Page Nos. 245-333

Online since Monday, July 3, 2017

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COMMENTARIES  

Mucormycosis and cytomegalovirus co-infection in renal transplant recipients p. 245
KL Gupta
DOI:10.4103/0971-4065.175977  
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Choking the feeder p. 247
ME Fernando
DOI:10.4103/0971-4065.204000  
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REVIEWS Top

Proton pump inhibitors: More indigestion than relief? p. 249
P Malavade, S Hiremath
DOI:10.4103/0971-4065.202824  
Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are widely prescribed to treat a number of gastrointestinal (GI) disorders due to excessive acid production. While effective and safe, adverse renal effects have been increasingly described in epidemiological literature. The most well-documented adverse renal outcome is acute interstitial nephritis; however, association with overall acute kidney injury has also been recently reported. Recently, two observational studies have linked PPI use with chronic kidney disease. Finally, hypomagnesemia is another reported complication and is thought to be resulting from GI loss of magnesium. This study will critically review literature on the effect of PPIs on the kidney.
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Acute kidney injury in pregnancy-specific disorders p. 258
J Prakash, VC Ganiger
DOI:10.4103/0971-4065.202406  
The incidence of acute kidney injury in pregnancy (P-AKI) has declined significantly over the last three decades in developing countries. However, it is still associated with significant fetomaternal mortality and morbidity. The diagnosis of P-AKI is based on the serum creatinine increase. The usual formulas for estimating glomerular filtration rate (GFR) are not validated in this population. The incidence of P-AKI with respect to total AKI cases has decreased in the last three decades from 25% in 1980s to 9% in 2000s at our centre. During the first trimester of gestation, AKI develops most often due to septic abortion or hyperemesis gravidarum. Septic abortion related AKI with respect to total AKI decreased from 9% to 5% in our study. Prevention of unwanted pregnancy and avoidance of septic abortion are keys to eliminate abortion associated AKI in early pregnancy. However, we have not seen AKI on account of hyperemesis gravidarum over a period of 33 years at our center. In the third trimester, the differential diagnosis of AKI in association with pregnancy specific conditions namely preeclampsia/HELLP syndrome, acute fatty liver of pregnancy and thrombotic microangiopathies of pregnancy (P-TMA) is more challenging, because these 3 conditions share several clinical features of thrombotic microangiopathy which makes the diagnosis very difficult on clinical grounds. It is imperative to distinguish these conditions to make appropriate therapeutic decisions. Typically, AFLP and HELLP syndrome improve after delivery of the fetus, whereas plasma exchange is the first-line treatment for pregnancy associated thrombotic microangioathies (P-TMA). We observed that preclampsia/eclampsia is the most common cause of AKI in late third trimester and postpartum periods followed by puerperal sepsis and postpartum hemorrhage. Pregnancy-associated thrombotic microangiopathies (aHUS/TTP) and AFLP are rare causes of AKI during pregnancy in developing countries.
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES Top

Kidney disease in human immunodeficiency virus-seropositive patients: Absence of human immunodeficiency virus-associated nephropathy was a characteristic feature p. 271
J Prakash, V Ganiger, S Prakash, M Sivasankar, S Sunder, U Singh
DOI:10.4103/0971-4065.202400  
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection can cause a broad spectrum of renal diseases. However, there is paucity of Indian data on the patterns of renal lesions in HIV-seropositive patients. The aim of the present study was to delineate the spectrum of renal lesions in HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients. In this prospective study, all HIV-positive patients of both genders aged >18 years were screened for renal disease. Patients with proteinuria of more than 1 g/24 h were subjected to renal biopsy. A total of 293 HIV-positive patients were screened; of these, 136 (46.4%) patients found to have renal involvement. Dipstick-positive proteinuria of 1+ or more was observed in 112 (38.2%) patients, and 16 (14.2%) patients had proteinuria of more than 1 g/24 h. Renal biopsy in 14 cases revealed glomerulonephritis (GN) in 12 (85.7%) (isolated GN in 4 [28.5%] and GN mixed with chronic TIN in 8 [57.1%]) patients. These include mesangioproliferative GN in 5 (35.7%), membranoproliferative GN in 2 (14.2%), focal segmental glomerulosclerosis in 2 (14.2%), diffuse proliferative GN in 2 (14.2%), and diabetic nephropathy in 1 (7.1%) patients. Chronic interstitial nephritis was noted in 10 (71.42%) (superimposed on GN in 8 [57.1%], isolated in 2 [14.2%]) patients. Granulomatous interstitial nephritis was seen in 3 (24.1%) cases. GN and chronic interstitial nephritis were noted in 85.7% and 71.42% of patients, respectively, mostly superimposed on each other. Mesangioproliferative GN was the most common glomerular lesion, but classical HIV-associated nephropathy was not observed.
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Impact of malnutrition, inflammation, and atherosclerosis on the outcome in hemodialysis patients p. 277
BB Kirushnan, B Subba Rao, R Annigeri, S Balasubramanian, R Seshadri, KC Prakash, V Vivek
DOI:10.4103/0971-4065.202830  
Malnutrition, inflammation, and atherosclerosis are significant problems in patients on hemodialysis. A prospective, observational study in 100 hemodialysis patients for 2 years was conducted. The primary outcomes were hospitalizations and mortality at the end of 2 years. The mean age was 61 ± 11.3 years and 69% were male. Seven patients did not complete the study (five underwent transplant and two were shifted to other units). Serum albumin was significantly lower in malnourished patients at 6 months from the beginning of the study period (3.58 vs. 3.79 g/dl, P = 0.001). Malnutrition based on subjective global assessment (SGA) was seen in 30 (32%) patients: mild to moderate in 27 (29%) and severe in 3 (3%). Inflammation was seen in 73 (78.5%) patients and intimal-medial thickness of >1.1 mm indicating significant atherosclerosis was seen in 73 (78.5%) patients. Modified SGA score and malnutrition-inflammation score (MIS) were significantly more in the malnourished group. Statistically significant association was seen between hospitalization and mortality in the malnourished population, and the odds ratio of death in malnourished patients was 9.83 (95% confidence interval: 2.8–34.3, P< 0.001). There was a moderate correlation between malnutrition assessed by modified SGA and MIS score (r = 0.54, P< 0.001). Mortality rate was 37% in patients with mild to moderate and 67% in severe malnutrition. Hospital admission was seen in 43 (46%) patients and was significantly more common in malnourished compared to well-nourished patients (77% vs. 32%, P< 0.001). Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that malnutrition by Modified SGA was the only significant variable associated with mortality at 2 years, and addition of MIS score did not improve the predictive ability of the model to modified SGA. We recommend the use of modified SGA and serial serum albumin to monitor nutrition in hemodialysis patients.
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Renal biopsy in paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria: An insight into the spectrum of morphologic changes p. 284
V Puri, A Gandhi, S Sharma
DOI:10.4103/0971-4065.202833  
Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) is a rare, acquired, potentially life-threatening disease of blood, characterized by complement-induced intravascular hemolytic anemia and thrombosis. PNH can sometimes present directly with renal manifestations, without showing any hematological manifestation. It, therefore, becomes essential for clinicians and pathologists to be aware of the spectrum of renal changes in PNH. The aim of this study was to document the morphologic changes observed in renal biopsies in patients with PNH. This is an observational study. We report three cases that presented with acute or chronic renal insufficiency and were suspected as PNH on viewing their renal biopsy in light of their clinical and laboratory details. All the three cases were confirmed as PNH on the basis of flow cytometric analysis of CD55 and CD59. Renal biopsy in these patients showed a variety of morphologic changes, however the most consistent finding was moderate-to-heavy siderosis in their kidneys. PNH per se may be difficult to diagnose clinically and sometimes present directly with renal manifestations. It is, therefore, prudent for nephrologists and nephropathologists to be aware of the spectrum of renal changes in PNH.
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Renal manifestations in paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria p. 289
R Ram, KP Adiraju, S Gudithi, KV Dakshinamurty
DOI:10.4103/0971-4065.205201  
Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) is an acquired chronic disorder characterized by a triad of clinical features - hemolytic anemia, pancytopenia, and thrombosis. Not many reports of renal involvement in PNH are available in literature. We present a case series of PNH with renal involvement. We present the data of PNH patients who attended to Departments of General Medicine and Nephrology at a government-run tertiary care institute in South India. The diagnosis of PNH in these patients during initial phase, between 1998 and 2004 was based on sucrose lysis and Ham's test. After 2004, the diagnosis was based on flow cytometry to detect CD59 (membrane inhibitor of reactive lysis), a glycoprotein, and CD55 (decay accelerating factor) in regulation of complement action. The patient data were collected from 1998 to 2014. There were 14 patients of PNH in this period. The mean age was 37 years and the range was 16–68 years. There were eight females. Acute kidney injury (AKI) was noted in six patients. Dialysis was performed in four of them. The mean serum creatinine and urea at the initiation of dialysis were 5.4 ± 0.6 and 64.1 ± 6.1 mg/dl, respectively. The median number of hemodialysis sessions done was four. Renal biopsy was done in four patients. In three patients, the urinalysis and serum chemistry were suggestive of Fanconi syndrome. In our patients, three renal manifestations of PNH were identified. They were AKI, renal vessel thrombosis, and Fanconi syndrome. Chronic renal failure was not identified.
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Medication adherence in kidney transplant recipients in an urban Indian setting p. 294
UR Adhikari, A Taraphder, A Hazra, T Das
DOI:10.4103/0971-4065.202835  
Medication nonadherence is a known problem after renal transplantation and can vary from one setting to another. Since it can lead to negative outcomes, it is important to develop intervention strategies to enhance adherence in a given setting using determinants identified through exploratory studies. We explored nonadherence in renal transplant recipients. A longitudinal survey was done with adult renal transplant recipients at a tertiary care public and two private hospitals of Kolkata. Subjects were followed-up for 1 year. After screening for medication adherence status by the four-item Morisky Medication Adherence Scale, those admitting to potential nonadherence were probed further. A patient was deemed to be nonadherent if failing to take medicines on appointed time (doses missed or delayed by more than 2 h) more than three times in any month during the observation period. A pretested questionnaire was used to explore potential determinants of nonadherence. Data of 153 patients recruited over a 2-year were analyzed. The extent of nonadherence with immunosuppressant regimens was about 31% overall; 44% in the public sector and 19% in the private sector (P < 0.001). Nonadherence with other medication was around 19% in both the sectors. Several potential demographic, socioeconomic and psychosocial determinants of nonadherence were identified on univariate analysis. However, logistic regression analysis singled out only the economic status. This study had updated the issue of nonadherence in renal transplant recipients in the Indian setting. Strategies to improve medication adherence can be planned by relevant stakeholders on the basis of these findings.
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Measured glomerular filtration rate at dialysis initiation and clinical outcomes of Indian peritoneal dialysis patients p. 301
N Prasad, MR Patel, A Chandra, D Rangaswamy, A Sinha, D Bhadauria, RK Sharma, A Kaul, A Gupta
DOI:10.4103/ijn.IJN_75_16  
The optimal time for dialysis initiation remains controversial. Studies have failed to show better outcomes with early initiation of hemodialysis; even a few had shown increased adverse outcomes including poorer survival. Few studies have examined the same in patients on peritoneal dialysis (PD). Measured glomerular filtration rate (mGFR) not creatinine-based estimated GFR is recommended as the measure of kidney function in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients. The objective of this observational study was to compare the outcomes of Indian patients initiated on PD with different residual renal function (RRF) as measured by 24-h urinary clearance method. A total of 352 incident patients starting on chronic ambulatory PD as the first modality of renal replacement therapy were followed prospectively. Patients were categorized into three groups as per mGFR at the initiation of PD (≤5, >5–10, and >10 ml/min/1.73 m2). Patient survival and technique survival were compared among the three groups. Patients with GFR of ≤5 ml/min/1.73 m2 (hazard ratio [HR] - 3.42, 95% confidence interval [CI] - 1.85–6.30, P = 0.000) and >5–10 ml/min/1.73 m2 (HR - 2.16, 95% CI - 1.26–3.71, P = 0.005) had higher risk of mortality as compared to those with GFR of >10 ml/min/1.73 m2. Each increment of 1 ml/min/1.73 m2 in baseline GFR was associated with 10% reduced risk of death (HR - 0.90, 95% CI - 0.85–0.96, P = 0.002). Technique survival was poor in those with an initial mGFR of ≤5 ml/min/1.73 m2 as compared to other categories. RRF at the initiation was also an important factor predicting nutritional status at 1 year of follow-up. To conclude, initiation of PD at a lower baseline mGFR is associated with poorer patient and technique survival in Indian ESRD patients.
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The epidemiology, clinical features, and outcome of infection-related glomerulonephritis from East India: A single center experience p. 307
M Trivedi, A Pasari, AR Chowdhury, AA Kurien, R Pandey
DOI:10.4103/ijn.IJN_280_16  
Infection-related glomerulonephritis (IRGN) is an example of immunological renal injury due to non-renal infections. With the changing face of IRGN over the years, renal biopsy definitely has an important role to play in differentiating this disease from the other masquerades and helps in prognosticating the long-term outcomes. This prospective study includes biopsy-proven IRGN cases who presented to us from July 2010 to July 2013 from a single center in East India. Of the 168 patients suspected and screened, 137 patients were proved to have IRGN. About 11.67% cases were proven to be immunoglobulin A-IRGN variant. The mean age of presentation was 22.7 ± 15.8 years with a slight male preponderance. A nephrotic range of proteinuria was seen in 13.8% cases and 17.5% patient required renal replacement therapy at presentation. Around 8.75% patients had persistent proteinuria despite normal renal function beyond 6 months of follow-up and 8.09% patients progressed to chronic kidney disease. It may no longer be classified as a glomerular disease with the definite favorable outcome as an important number of patients may progress to chronicity following this disease. Renal biopsy plays an important role in the assessment of prognosis of IRGN and detection of the presence of other underlying glomerulonephritis and should be considered early, especially in patients with atypical presentation.
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CASE REPORTS Top

Renal artery thrombosis with renal infarction: A rare cause of acute abdomen p. 313
A Nandwani, D Pathania, PK Jha, V Kher
DOI:10.4103/0971-4065.183581  
Renal artery thrombosis with renal infarction is a rare entity. Due to the nonspecific clinical presentation, the diagnosis is usually delayed. We describe such a case in a middle-aged man with membranous nephropathy who was in remission and presented with severe abdominal pain. He was managed with selective intra-arterial thrombolysis with a good outcome.
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Primary renal echinococcosis p. 316
Vishal V Ramteke, Nishant S Deshpande, Manish R Balwani, Charulata P Bawankule
DOI:10.4103/0971-4065.202839  
Echinococcosis is a parasitic infection caused by the larval stage of a cestode Echinococcus granulosus and is endemic in sheep farming regions of developing countries. It manifests as hydatid cyst and most commonly is found in liver followed by lungs. Renal hydatid cyst is rare and amounts for 2% of all cases. There are no specific clinical manifestations, and hence diagnosis of renal hydatid disease is missed out easily without imaging. We report a case of 50-year-old female who had 6 months history of lower abdominal pain with hematuria, found to have right renal hydatid cyst on imaging which was treated with right nephrectomy with pre- and post-operative albendazole treatment.
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Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis associated with a human immunodeficiency virus infection p. 319
H Rafik, M El Amrani, D El Kabbaj
DOI:10.4103/0971-4065.202838  
Type 1 membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN) is an uncommon manifestation of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated renal disease in patients coinfected with hepatitis C virus. We report a case of MPGN characterized by nephrotic syndrome associated with HIV without hepatitis C coinfection. The patient had a favorable response to highly active antiretroviral therapy and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors. Recognition of the MPGN lesion in HIV infection devoid of hepatitis C coinfection must be considered.
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Dengue fever-induced thrombotic microangiopathy: An unusual cause of renal failure p. 321
V Bhargava, P Gupta, R Kauntia, G Bajpai
DOI:10.4103/0971-4065.202837  
Dengue fever is a tropical infection, which is mosquito-borne disease, caused by dengue virus and spread by Aedes mosquitoes. The incidence of dengue fever has risen rapidly over the past few years. About half of dengue infections are asymptomatic, and a great majority present with fever and body ache. However, the occurrence of complications is well known, including acute kidney injury (AKI). AKI in dengue is usually attributable to a pre-renal cause. Thrombotic microangiopathy is an extremely rare complication of dengue fever, with only a few published case reports in medical literature. This case intends to highlight the importance of recognizing dengue fever-induced thrombotic microangiopathy by physicians and pathologists, enabling better diagnosis and management of this life-threatening condition.
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Sequential, autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplant followed by renal transplant in multiple myeloma p. 324
D Bhowmik, S Yadav, L Kumar, S Agarwal, SK Agarwal, S Gupta
DOI:10.4103/ijn.IJN_169_16  
A 30-year-old female was symptomatic with headache, fatigue, and weakness since October 2011 and was told to have anemia. In January 2012, she was admitted outside with pulmonary edema. Investigations revealed advanced azotemia, anemia, and hypercalcemia. Urine showed 2 + proteins and 30–35 red blood cells. There was no history of oral ulcers, rash, Raynaud's phenomenon, or hemoptysis. She was evaluated for causes of rapidly progressive “renal failure.” Hemolytic work-up; antinuclear antibody, double-stranded DNA, and anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody were negative. Kidney biopsy was done and interpreted as acute interstitial nephritis with hyaline casts. She was started on hemodialysis and treated with steroids and cyclophosphamide. She came to our institute in January 2012. Investigations showed evidence of paraproteinemia with kappa restriction. Bone marrow showed 15% plasma cells. Kidney biopsy was reviewed and was diagnostic of cast nephropathy. She was treated with 6 monthly cycles of dexamethasone and bortezomib. She achieved complete remission in July 2012. Maintenance doses of bortezomib were continued until May 2014. Autologous bone marrow transplantation was performed on June 06, 2014. Monthly, bortezomib was continued till April 2015. Subsequently, workup for renal transplantation was started with her father as her donor. Test for sensitization was negative. Renal transplantation was done on January 1, 2016, with prednisolone, mycophenolate, and tacrolimus. She achieved a serum creatinine of 0.6 mg% on the 4th postoperative day. Thereafter, she continues to remain stable.
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Circulating monoclonal IgG1-kappa antibodies causing anti-glomerular basement membrane nephritis p. 327
M Vankalakunti, R Nada, A Kumar, K Patro, S Ramakrishnan, D Rangarajan
DOI:10.4103/ijn.IJN_113_16  
Anti-glomerular basement membrane (GBM) antibody disease is a rare but well-characterized cause of glomerulonephritis. Patients present with rapidly progressive renal failure with hemoptysis. Early diagnosis is crucial in salvaging the renal damage and life-threatening pulmonary hemorrhage. Plasmapheresis and immunosuppression is the mode of therapy. Anti-GBM antibodies are polyclonal in nature. However, rare monoclonal antibodies can cause similar destruction of glomerular capillary walls. We describe distinct combination of circulating monoclonal and anti-GBM nephritis.
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LETTERS TO EDITOR Top

Renal tubular acidosis, osteopetrosis, and cerebral calcification: A rare syndrome caused by carbonic anhydrase II deficiency p. 330
BA Laway, I Mubarik
DOI:10.4103/0971-4065.209347  
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Collagenofibrotic glomerulopathy p. 331
M. H. K. Reddy, A. C. V. Kumar, VS Chandra, N Praveen, AA Kurien, B Sangeetha, R Ram
DOI:10.4103/ijn.IJN_227_16  
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Indian Journal of Nephrology
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