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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
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Albuminuria and reduced estimated glomerular filtration rate among first-degree relatives of patients with chronic kidney disease in Lagos, Southwest Nigeria


1 Department of Medicine, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria
2 Department of Medicine, College of Medicine, University of Lagos, Idi-Araba, Lagos State, Nigeria

Correspondence Address:
YR Raji,
Department of Medicine, Nephrology Unit, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Oyo State
Nigeria
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

Screening of individuals at increased risk of developing chronic kidney disease (CKD) has been advocated by several guidelines. Among individuals at increased risk are first-degree relatives (FDRs) of patients with CKD. There is a paucity of data on the prevalence and risk of CKD in FDRs of patients with CKD in sub-Saharan African population. This study aimed to screen FDRs of patients with CKD for albuminuria and reduced estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). A cross-sectional survey of 230 FDRs of patients with CKD and 230 individuals without family history of CKD was conducted. Urinary albumin: creatinine ratio (ACR) was determined from an early morning spot urine. Glomerular filtration rate was estimated from serum creatinine. Reduced eGFR was defined as eGFR <60 ml/min/1.73 m2 and albuminuria defined as ACR ≥30 mg/g. A higher prevalence of albuminuria was found in the FDRs compared to the controls (37.0% vs. 22.2%; P < 0.01). Reduced eGFR was more prevalent among the FDRs compared with the controls (5.7% vs. 1.7%, P < 0.03). Hypertension (odds ratio [OR], 2.9) and reduced eGFR (OR, 9.1) were independent predictors of albuminuria while increasing age (OR, 6.7) and proteinuria (OR, 10.7) predicted reduced eGFR in FDRs. The odds of developing renal dysfunction were increased 2-fold in the FDRs of patients with CKD, OR 2.3, 95% confidence interval, 1.29–3.17. We concluded that albuminuria and reduced eGFR are more prevalent among the FDRs of patient with CKD and they are twice as likely to develop kidney dysfunction as healthy controls.


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Indian Journal of Nephrology
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Online since 20th Sept '07