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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
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The role of far infrared therapy in the unassisted maturation of arterio-venous fistula in patients with chronic kidney disease


1 Department of Nephrology, Government Stanley Medical College and Hospital, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
2 Department of Radio-Diagnosis, Government Stanley Medical College and Hospital, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
3 Department of Pathology, Government Stanley Medical College and Hospital, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
4 Vascular Surgery, Government Stanley Medical College and Hospital, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
5 Department of Community Medicine, Velammal Medical College Hospital, Madurai, Tamil Nadu, India

Correspondence Address:
M Edwin Fernando,
Department of Nephrology, Government Stanley Medical College and Hospital, Chennai, Tamil Nadu
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/ijn.IJN_122_19

Introduction: The goal of arterio-venous fistula (AVF) creation is to achieve a well-functioning access that can be cannulated repetitively and can provide adequate flow for the dialysis. The objective of this study was to assess the role of far infrared (FIR) therapy in the unassisted maturation of newly created AVF in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Materials and Methods: In this prospective open labeled randomised control trial, 107 patients were randomized. Participants in the control arm received oral clopidogrel 75 mg once daily for 30 days along with isometric hand exercise, whereas those in the test arm received FIR therapy twice weekly, 40 min session each, for 4 weeks. A biopsy from venous end was taken during fistula surgery. Doppler study of AVF was done at the end of the 4th and 12th week to assess AVF. Vascular access guidelines proposed by National Kidney Foundation –Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative (NKF- KDOQI) in 2006 were adapted to define the maturation of AVF. Results: Out of 107 patients, 51 were randomized to the test arm and 56 to the control arm. During follow-up, the blood flow rate through AVF (Qa) and the diameter of the cephalic vein draining (CVd) the AVF were measured. At the end of 3 months, Qa in Radio-Cephalic Fistula (RCF) was high in the test arm (p–0.003). The AVF failures were 5 (10.2%) and 14 (28%) in the test and control arms, respectively (p: 0.025). However, when adjusted for AVF failure within 6 h of surgery (may be related to surgical technique) this difference in AVF patency was statistically insignificant (p: 0.121). The mean Qa was high in patients with an arterial intimal medial thickness (AIMT) <0.5 mm. The IMT of the anastomosed artery had statistically significant correlation with the primary failure rate of AVF (P < 0.001). Conclusion: In patients with CKD, FIR therapy was effective in increasing the AVF blood flow rate at the end of 3 months, though the difference in primary failure rate was statistically insignificant.


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Indian Journal of Nephrology
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