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   2014| January-February  | Volume 24 | Issue 1  
    Online since January 16, 2014

 
 
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CASE REPORTS
Plasmablastic myeloma presenting as rapidly progressive renal failure in a young adult
M Srija, PP Zachariah, VN Unni, A Mathew, R Rajesh, G Kurian, S Neeraj, NV Seethalekshmi, NV Smitha
January-February 2014, 24(1):41-44
DOI:10.4103/0971-4065.125081  PMID:24574631
Multiple myeloma (MM) is a condition where there is malignant proliferation of plasma cells. There is a strong correlation with age, peaking at 60-70 years. The clinical course in adolescents and young individuals is generally indolent and the survival is longer. We report a case of a 28-year-old male, who was diagnosed to have plasmablastic myeloma, an atypical variant of MM with a poor prognosis, presenting as rapidly progressive renal failure. He was given induction chemotherapy and then underwent autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation.
  2,543 137 -
Partially thrombosed aneurysm of the abdominal aorta: Unusual cause of chronic inflammation and resistance to recombinant human erythropoietin
M El Amrani, A El Kharras, M Asserraji
January-February 2014, 24(1):38-40
DOI:10.4103/0971-4065.125069  PMID:24574630
Diagnosis of chronic inflammatory syndrome is often a challenge. In dialysis patients, this condition leads to resistance to recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO). We here report a case of a 72-year-old male undergoing chronic hemodialysis and developed rHuEPO resistance without any obvious etiology. Investigations showed a partially thromosed aneurysm of the infrarenal aorta. Antiplatelet therapy was started with a satisfactory outcome.
  2,308 83 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome in children with kidney disease
DN Gera, SB Patil, A Iyer, VB Kute, S Gandhi, D Kumar, HL Trivedi
January-February 2014, 24(1):28-34
DOI:10.4103/0971-4065.125053  PMID:24574628
Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a clinic-radiographic entity of heterogeneous etiologies that are grouped together because of similar findings on neuro-imaging and associated symptom complex of headache, vision loss, altered mentation, and seizures. Although usually considered benign and reversible, characteristics of this syndrome in pediatric patients remain obscure. This case series included 11 patients (8 males, 3 females, age 3-15 years) of PRES during September 2010 to February 2012 out of a total 660 renal pediatric patients (1.66%). We studied their clinical profile, contributory factors, and outcome. Presenting symptoms were headache in 73%, dimness of vision or cortical blindness in 36%, seizures in 91%, and altered mentation in 55%. The associated renal diseases were acute renal failure (55%), chronic renal failure (9%), and 36% had normal renal function. The contributory factors were uncontrolled hypertension (100%), severe hypoproteinemia (9%), persistent hypocalcemia (9%), hemolytic uremic syndrome (36%), cyclosporine toxicity (9%), lupus nephritis (9%), high hematocrit (9%), and pulse methylprednisolone (9%). Brain imaging showed involvement of occipito-parietal area (100%) and other brain areas (63%). All but one patient of hemolytic uremic syndrome had complete clinical neurological recovery in a week, and all had normal neurological imaging after 4-5 weeks. PRES is an underdiagnosed entity in pediatric renal disease patients. Associated hypertension, renal disease, and immunosuppressive treatment are important triggers. Early diagnosis and treatment of comorbid conditions is of prime importance for early reversal of syndrome.
  2,176 192 1
Correlation of serum phosphate with carotid intimal-medial thickness in chronic kidney disease patients
VK Sharma, P Dwivedi, AK Dubey
January-February 2014, 24(1):15-19
DOI:10.4103/0971-4065.125050  PMID:24574625
While increased serum phosphate concentration is a significant risk factor for vascular calcification, it is unclear whether serum phosphate is also a risk factor for increased arterial wall thickness in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. Using B-mode ultrasonography, we examined carotid intimal-medial thickness (CIMT) of CKD patients and analyzed risk factors for increased IMT with regard to the effect of serum phosphate. One hundred patients were enrolled (73 patients without diabetes, 27 patients with diabetes; 57 men, 43 women; age, 46.2 ± 15.3 years). CIMT of patients with diabetes was significantly greater than that of patients without diabetes (0.78 ± 0.250 versus 0.66 ± 0.178 mm; P < 0.0001). For the group of all patients, CIMT correlated strongly and significantly with serum phosphate ( r = 0.911; P < 0.001). In multiple regression analysis serum phosphate level (β = 0.356; <0.0001) was found to be a significant independent risk factor for increased CIMT, in addition to other independent risk factors, including advanced age, higher systolic blood pressure, urinary albumin and the presence of diabetes (R2 = 0.956; P < 0.00001). In conclusion, high serum phosphate level is a significant and independent factor associated with advanced arteriosclerosis in CKD patients with and without diabetes in addition to advanced age.
  1,711 265 -
CASE REPORTS
Pregabalin-associated myoclonic encephalopathy without evidence of drug accumulation in a patient with acute renal failure
F Courtois, D Borrey, V Haufroid, P Hantson
January-February 2014, 24(1):48-50
DOI:10.4103/0971-4065.125102  PMID:24574633
Pregabalin, used for treating partial epilepsy and neuropathic pain, is usually well tolerated. Patients with impaired renal function are at risk to develop more serious adverse events. A 64-year-old woman was admitted in the Emergency Department for altered consciousness and abnormal movements. She recently started to take pregabalin (150 mg/day) for neuropathic pain. The drug was withdrawn 36 h before hospitalization following worsening of neurological symptoms. At physical examination, myoclonus was noted as main finding in the limbs and head, with encephalopathy. Laboratory investigations revealed acute renal failure with serum creatinine at 451.3 μmol/l. Urine output was preserved. After supportive care alone, myoclonus resolved after 24 h and consciousness was normal after 48 h. Renal function was also recovered. At the time of admission, the concentration of plasma pregabalin was 3.42 μg/ml, within therapeutic range. The calculated terminal elimination half-life was 11.5 h. Pregabalin-induced myoclonus may not be strictly related to drug accumulation in acute renal failure, with the possibility of a threshold phenomenon.
  1,869 106 1
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Thrombotic microangiopathy in renal allografts
S Radha, Afroz Tameem, G Sridhar, A Aiyangar, KG Rajaram, R Prasad, K Kiran
January-February 2014, 24(1):24-27
DOI:10.4103/0971-4065.125052  PMID:24574627
Thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) is a serious complication of renal transplantation. It is a morphological expression of various etiological factors. In a renal allograft, TMA can occur de novo or be a recurrent disease. The aim of this study was to analyze the etiological factors and observe the changing trends of TMA with respect to emerging new etiological factors. We evaluated 131 graft biopsies over a period of 2½ years (2010-2012). All the renal biopsies were formalin fixed, paraffin embedded. Twenty serial sections were studied. Stains routinely used were Hematoxylin and Eosin, Periodic Acid Schiff, Massons Trichrome and Silver Methenamine stains. C4d by immunohistochemical method was done on all graft biopsies. Incidence of TMA in our series was 9.1%. Out of the 12 cases, five were associated with calcineurin inhibitor toxicity, three were diagnosed as acute antibody-mediated rejection, and two were recurrent haemolytic uremic syndrome. One patient developed haemolytic uremic syndrome on treatment with sirolimus and one patient was cytomegalovirus positive on treatment with ganciclovir, developed haemolytic uremic syndrome during treatment course. This study describes a spectrum of etiological factors for thrombotic mciroangiopathy ranging from common cause like calcineurin inhibitor toxicity to rare cause like ganciclovir induced TMA.
  1,755 180 1
Anesthetic management in parturients with chronic kidney disease undergoing elective Caesarean delivery: Our experience of nine cases
MP Modi, KS Vora, GP Parikh, VR Shah, VV Misra, AF Jasani
January-February 2014, 24(1):20-23
DOI:10.4103/0971-4065.125051  PMID:24574626
In this retrospective study, we describe the anesthetic management and its implications in parturients with chronic kidney disease (CKD; n = 9), who underwent elective caesarean delivery. Nine parturients with CKD of various etiologies, who underwent elective Caesarean delivery, were included in this study. Spinal anest-hesia was administered in all parturients with normal coagulation profile through a 25-gauze spinal needle (Quincke) with 0.5% (H) bupivacaine in L2-3 space and T6 level was achieved. Hemodynamics and side effects such as nausea, vomiting, headache, and backache were record. The mean age was 28.22 ± 4.43 years. The mean levels of serum creatinine and serum potassium were 2.78 ± 1.29 mg/dl and 4.11 ± 0.46 meq/l, respectively. Mean baseline values of systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and pulse rate were higher which decreased after spinal anesthesia. However, the incidence of hypotension, which required mephentermine treatment, was 11.1%. One patient had symptoms of nausea and vomiting/dizziness at the time of hypotension, which disappeared after treatment with 5 mg of intravenous mephentermine. Baseline value of PR remained high throughout the operation. Parturients with CKD with normal coagulation profile remained hemodynamically stable under spinal anesthesia with minimal side effects. However, a large number of studies are required to determine the safety of spinal anesthesia in this setting.
  1,718 206 -
Outcome of live and deceased donor renal transplantation in patients aged ≥55 years: A single-center experience
VB Kute, AV Vanikar, PR Shah, MR Gumber, HV Patel, PR Modi, SJ Rizvi, VR Shah, MP Modi, KV Kanodia, HL Trivedi
January-February 2014, 24(1):9-14
DOI:10.4103/0971-4065.125049  PMID:24574624
Renal transplantation (RTx) has now become an accepted therapeutic modality of choice for elderly ESRD patients. This single-center study was undertaken to evaluate the outcome of RTx in ESRD patients ≥55 years. A total of 103 patients underwent RTx 79 living related living donors [LD], 24 deceased donors [DD]) at our center. Post-transplant immunosuppression consisted of calcineurin inhibitor-based regimen. The mean donor age was 58.3 years in the LD group and 59.5 years in the DD group. Male recipients constituted 92% in LD and 75% in DD group. In living donor renal transplantation, 1- and 5-year patient survival was 93% and 83.3% respectively and death-censored graft survival was 97.3% and 92.5% respectively. There were 12.6% biopsy proven acute rejection (BPAR) episodes and 12.6% patients were lost, mainly due to infections. In deceased donor renal transplantation, 1- and 5-year patient survival was 79.1% and 74.5% respectively and death-censored graft survival was 95.8% and 85.1% respectively. There were 12.5% BPAR episodes and 25% of patients were lost, mainly due to infections. RTx in ESRD (≥55 years) patients has acceptable patient and graft survival if found to have cardiac fitness and therefore should be encouraged.
  1,741 170 1
Outcomes of spousal versus related donor kidney transplants: A comparative study
T Mittal, R Ramachandran, V Kumar, M Rathi, HS Kohli, V Jha, KL Gupta, M Minz, K Joshi, V Sakhuja
January-February 2014, 24(1):3-8
DOI:10.4103/0971-4065.125046  PMID:24574623
This study was designed to compare the outcomes of spousal donor (SD) with related donor (RD) kidney transplants performed at our center between January 2010 and October 2012. A total of 323 adult, ABO-compatible kidney transplants (SD 150 [46.4%], RD 173 [53.6%]) were included. Data on outcomes at 6 months post-transplant was collected retrospectively (2010-2011) and prospectively (January-October 2012). Majority of the donors (SD 88%, RD 72.2%) were females. In the SD group, donors were younger (SD 35.6 ± 8.2 years, RD 45.2 ± 11.5 years; P < 0.0001), whereas recipients were older (SD 42.2 ± 8.3 years, RD 30.0 ± 9.5 years; P < 0.0001). A significantly higher proportion of patients in the SD group were given induction therapy (43% vs 12%; P < 0.001). Biopsy proven acute rejections were more common in the RD group (16% vs 28.3%; P = 0.01). Majority (80.8%) of the acute rejections occurred in the first 2 weeks post-transplant in both groups. Isolated acute cellular rejections (ACRs) and isolated antibody mediated rejections constituted 50% and 25% of rejection episodes in both groups, whereas the remainder had histological evidence of both. The proportion of steroid responsive ACRs was similar in both groups (SD 83.3%, RD 65.4%; P = 0.2). The number of patients with abnormal graft function at the end of the study was higher in the RD group (2.3% vs. 12.3%; P = 0.001). Patient survival and infection rates were similar in the two groups. We conclude that short-term outcomes of SD transplants are not inferior to RD transplants. Lesser use of induction therapy in the RD group may explain the poorer outcomes as compared to the SD group.
  1,584 226 -
CASE REPORTS
Gitelman's syndrome: Rare presentation with growth retardation
A Gaur, R Ambey, BK Gaur
January-February 2014, 24(1):60-62
DOI:10.4103/0971-4065.125133  PMID:24574637
Gitelman's syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis, hypokalemia, hypomagnesaemia, hypocalciuria, hyperreninemia and without hypertension. Gitelman's syndrome is caused by mutations of the SLC12A3 gene, which encodes the Na/Cl co-transporter (NCCT) in the distal convoluted tubule. Majority of cases manifest during adolescence or adulthood and growth retardation is not the common feature. We report a rare presentation of Gitelman's syndrome in a four-year-old boy with growth retardation.
  1,670 128 1
Intravenous albumin infusion is an effective therapy for hyponatremia in patient with malignant ascites
KD Jhaveri, A Chawla, C Xu, A Hazzan
January-February 2014, 24(1):51-53
DOI:10.4103/0971-4065.125116  PMID:24574634
There are few reports about the treatment of moderate to severe hyponatremia associated with malignant liver metastasis. Here, we report using intravenous salt poor albumin infusion to treat hypervolemic cirrhosis related hyponatremia. A 58-year-old female with ascites secondary to metastatic breast cancer was referred to our department with symptomatic hyponatremia (serum sodium concentration of 121 mEq/L). The serum sodium level was corrected slowly over 2 days with intravenous albumin infusion and the patient's symptoms - fatigue, nausea, dizziness and headache improved.
  1,496 113 -
Hemolytic uremic syndrome associated with Plasmodium vivax malaria successfully treated with plasma exchange
VS Keskar, TE Jamale, NK Hase
January-February 2014, 24(1):35-37
DOI:10.4103/0971-4065.125054  PMID:24574629
We report a case of hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) in an adult patient with Plasmodium vivax malaria. The patient presented with worsening anemia, persistent thrombocytopenia and acute kidney injury. HUS was diagnosed based on the high serum lactate dehydrogenase, elevated reticulocyte count and presence of schistocytes on peripheral blood smear. Kidney biopsy showed features of thrombotic microangiopathy. Complete hematological remission was achieved after five sessions of therapeutic plasma exchange. Renal function partially recovered and stabilized at discharge. Vivax malaria, generally considered benign, may be rarely associated with HUS.
  1,318 132 -
Successful three-way kidney paired donation transplantation: The first Indian report
VB Kute, MR Gumber, PR Shah, HV Patel, AV Vanikar, PR Modi, VR Shah, HL Trivedi
January-February 2014, 24(1):45-47
DOI:10.4103/0971-4065.125094  PMID:24574632
Providing transplantation opportunities for patients with incompatible live donors through kidney paired donation (KPD) is an important strategy for easing the crisis in organ availability. KPD is can overcome the barriers when the only living potential donors are deemed unsuitable owing to an incompatibility of blood type, of human leukocyte antigen cross-match, or both. In KPD, the incompatibility problems with two donor recipient pairs can be solved by exchanging donors. In the absence of well-organized deceased donor program, or transplantation with desensitization protocol and ABO incompatible transplantation, living donor KPD promises hope to the growing number of patients suffering from end-stage renal disease in India. We report our first successful three-way KPD transplantation from India. In an era of organ shortage, this approach is relevant to encourage wider participation from KPD donors and transplant centers to prevent commercial transplantation.
  1,319 119 1
EDITORIAL
Spouses as kidney donors in India: Trends and outcomes
V Sakhuja, V Kumar
January-February 2014, 24(1):1-2
DOI:10.4103/0971-4065.125043  PMID:24574622
  1,206 199 -
IMAGES IN NEPHROLOGY
Looking beyond vesical calculi
B Sureka, MK Mittal, M Sinha, BB Thukral
January-February 2014, 24(1):63-64
DOI:10.4103/0971-4065.125134  PMID:24574638
  1,242 123 -
CASE REPORTS
Membranous nephropathy superimposed on Churg-Strauss syndrome
R Ram, C Shyam Sunder Rao, G Swarnalatha, K Sireesha, HR Madhuri, L Rajasekhar, KV Dakshinamurty
January-February 2014, 24(1):57-59
DOI:10.4103/0971-4065.125132  PMID:24574636
The association of membranous nephropathy with Churg-Strauss syndrome is not widely reported. We present a patient with myeloperioxidase-perinuclear antineutrophilic cytoplasmic antibody (MPO-pANCA)-positive necrotizing and crescentic glomerulonephritis who later developed membranous nephropathy.
  1,237 101 1
A case of fatal disseminated Apophysomyces elegans infection in a renal allograft recipient
S Rasiah, K David Fernandes, CT Sajiv, B Pawar
January-February 2014, 24(1):54-56
DOI:10.4103/0971-4065.125130  PMID:24574635
An unusual fatal infection with Apophysomyces elegans belonging to the fungal class Zygomycetes in a renal transplant recipient is presented.
  1,154 79 -
LETTERS TO EDITOR
The neutrophil lymphocyte ratio may be useful inflammatory indicator before applying other expensive and invasive procedures
S Demirkol, S Balta, U Kucuk, HO Kucuk
January-February 2014, 24(1):65-66
DOI:10.4103/0971-4065.125135  PMID:24574639
  1,004 93 1
Prevalence and risk factors of renal artery stenosis in South Asian patients with type 2 diabetes using renal angiography
E Tan, R Debajyoti, S Sharma, RD Bhatia, S Barbier, J Khoo, JM Ng
January-February 2014, 24(1):68-69
DOI:10.4103/0971-4065.125143  PMID:24574643
  979 87 -
Utility of left-over renal tissue for light microscopy after immunofluorescence
R Patnayak, A Jena, AK Chowhan, N Rukmangadha, VS Kumar
January-February 2014, 24(1):68-68
DOI:10.4103/0971-4065.125141  PMID:24574642
  645 53 -
Author's reply
K Turkmen, F Tufan, S Engin, T Akpinar, H Oflaz, T Ecder
January-February 2014, 24(1):66-66
  584 60 -
Peritoneal dialysis in Peru
E Vélez-Segovia, L Salazar-Huayna, E Alva-Bravo
January-February 2014, 24(1):67-68
DOI:10.4103/0971-4065.125140  PMID:24574641
  567 43 -
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