Figure 1: Healthcare services for identification and management of chronic kidney disease by country income level. (a) Primary care (i.e. basic health facilities at community levels (e.g., clinics, dispensaries, and small local hospitals). (b) Secondary/specialty care (i.e. health facilities at a level higher than primary care (e.g., clinics, hospitals, and academic centers). eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate; HbA1C, glycated hemoglobin; UACR, urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio; UPCR, urine protein-to-creatinine ratio. Data from Bello et al. and Htay et al.