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   2010| January-March  | Volume 20 | Issue 1  
    Online since March 29, 2010

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The evolution of the Banff classification schema for diagnosing renal allograft rejection and its implications for clinicians
DM Bhowmik, AK Dinda, P Mahanta, SK Agarwal
January-March 2010, 20(1):2-8
DOI:10.4103/0971-4065.62086  PMID:20535263
Till the early 1990s there was no standardized international classification of renal allograft biopsies resulting in considerable heterogeneity in reporting among the various centers. A group of dedicated renal pathologists, nephrologists, and transplant surgeons developed a schema in Banff, Canada in 1991. Subsequently there have been updates at regular intervals. The following review presents the evolution of the Banff classification and its utility for clinicians.
  11,244 1,152 9
Serum C peptide level and renal function in diabetes mellitus
MN Chowta, PM Adhikari, NK Chowta, AK Shenoy, S D'Souza
January-March 2010, 20(1):25-28
DOI:10.4103/0971-4065.62093  PMID:20535267
C peptide is an active peptide hormone with potentially important physiological effects. C peptide has the capacity to diminish glomerular hyperfiltration and reduce urinary albumin excretion in both experimental and human type 1 diabetes. The present study is aimed at correlating the serum C peptide level with that of renal clearance, urinary albumin excretion and duration of diabetes. This is a prospective cross sectional study. Patients with diagnosis of type 2 diabetes mellitus were evaluated for their baseline clinical and laboratory profile. Both males and females above the age of 18 years were included in the study. The laboratory investigations include fasting serum C peptide, HbA 1C , serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, urine albumin and creatinine. Creatinine clearance was calculated using modification of diet in renal disease formula from serum creatinine value. A total of 168 patients were included in the study, among them 90 were females (53.57%) and 78 males (46.43%). Mean age of the patients was 57.64 years. Pearson correlation test showed negative correlation of serum C peptide level with creatinine clearance, though statistically not significant. Negative correlation was also seen between serum C peptide, and urine albumin, urine albumin creatinine ratio, HbA 1C and duration of diabetes. Mean urine albumin was higher in patients with subnormal C peptide level. Duration of disease was more in patients with lower serum C peptide level. The study has shown weak association of serum C peptide level with microalbuminuria and creatinine clearance. Risk of albuminuria is more in patients with low serum C peptide level.
  4,765 387 2
ANCA negative pauci-immune glomerulonephritis with systemic involvement
K Sampathkumar, M Ramakrishnan, AK Sah, S Gowtham, RN Ajeshkumar
January-March 2010, 20(1):43-47
DOI:10.4103/0971-4065.62096  PMID:20535271
Systemic vasculitides (SV) are a group of diseases with multi system involvement and varied clinical presentation. Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA) testing has high sensitivity and specificity for SV. We describe the clinical course of four patients who had pauci-immune glomerulonephritis with systemic involvement without serological ANCA positivity; they were followed up for a cumulative 55 patient months. The mean Birmingham vasculitis score score was 23. All four had systemic symptoms with arthralgias and fever (100%). Neurological manifestations were seen in two patients (66%). Accelerated hypertension was seen in one. One patient had pulmonary renal syndrome. Renal manifestation was characterized by nephrotic range of proteinuria with glomerular hematuria in all (100%) and severe renal failure requiring dialysis in three (66%). At admission the mean blood urea was 146 ± 19 mg% and mean serum creatinine was 5.6 ± 1.9 mg%. Renal biopsy revealed focal proliferative glomerulonephritis with crescents only in 20-30% of glomeruli. There was significant chronic interstitial involvement in two patients (66%). Therapy with pulse steroids, cyclophosphamide, and mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) was effective in three patients while one died with lung hemorrhage. In conclusion, majority of patients with ANCA negative pauci-immune glomerulonephritis have multi-system involvement at admission. Renal biopsy is characterized by focal proliferative lesions with crescents and significant chronic interstitial fibrosis. Immunosuppressive drugs in the form of corticosteroids, MMF and cyclophosphamide bring about marked renal recovery in most patients.
  4,807 290 5
Paraoxonase: Its antiatherogenic role in chronic renal failure
M Prakash, NM Phani, R Kavya, M Supriya
January-March 2010, 20(1):9-14
DOI:10.4103/0971-4065.62088  PMID:20535264
Paraoxonase (PON) is an aryldialkylphosphatase, which reversibly binds and hydrolyzes organophosphates. The PON family has three members (PON1, PON2 and PON3); they share structural properties and enzymatic activities. PON1 is shown to reside over high density lipoprotein (HDL) and has both antioxidant and antiatherogenic functions. Function of PON2 and PON3 are speculative and still under research. Several methodologies were developed over the years to determine the activity and mass of PON1, of which spectrophotometer-based methods using certain chemicals as substrate predominate. Several studies have shown decreased levels of PON1 in chronic renal failure (CRF) patients, particularly those on hemodialysis. The role of PON1 in development of cardiovascular disease has drawn considerable attention in recent years. Several authors have shown decreased levels of HDL and PON1 activity in CRF patients on hemodialysis and reported this to be a risk factor in the development of CVD. Enhancement or maintenance of the PON1 activity may prevent development of CVDs and its consequences in patients on hemodialysis.
  4,496 451 11
Effect of amlodipine and lisinopril on microalbuminuria in patients with essential hypertension: A prospective study
S Jalal, FA Sofi, SM Abass, MS Alai, MA Bhat, HA Rather, NA Lone, MA Siddiqi
January-March 2010, 20(1):15-20
DOI:10.4103/0971-4065.62090  PMID:20535265
Microalbuminuria can be present in 25-100% of patients with essential hypertension and is associated with increased incidence of cardiovascular events. Our goal was to evaluate the effect of a commonly used calcium channel blocker, amlodipine, and an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, lisinopril on urinary albumin excretion in patients with mild to moderate essential hypertension. We screened 324 patients with essential hypertension for microalbuminuria and documented it in 120 patients. These 120 patients with microalbuminuria were randomly divided into two groups of 60 each, matched for age, sex, arterial pressure, creatinine clearance, and urinary albumin excretion so as to receive amlodipine or lisinopril. We prospectively measured their urinary albumin excretion and creatinine clearance prior to treatment and, four and eight weeks after treatment with amlodipine or lisinopril. Mean arterial pressure (mean±SD) at baseline, after four weeks, and after eight weeks was 113.01±4.38, 104.93±3.12, and 98.89±1.75 mmHg ( P < 0.0000); and 114.13±7.11, 106.52±3.50, and 100.89±2.80mmHg ( P < 0.0000) in amlodipine and lisinopril groups, respectively. Urinary albumin excretion (mean ± SEM) at baseline, after four, and after eight weeks was 79.30 ± 3.74, 62.03 ± 3.61, and 52.02 ± 3.05 ( P < 0.0000); and 73.96 ± 4.10, 72.39 ± 3.74, 66.12 ± 3.94 ( P = 0.1742) in lisinopril and amlodipine groups, respectively. Lisinopril but not amlodipine, reduced the urinary albumin excretion significantly despite their similar antihypertensive efficacy. The clinical and prognostic significance of these observations need to be established.
  4,138 398 4
Authors should know the ethical rules of publication
Fahmi Yousef Khan
January-March 2010, 20(1):55-55
DOI:10.4103/0971-4065.62087  PMID:20535275
  4,144 148 -
Bilateral anterior ischemic optic neuropathy in patients on dialysis: A report of two cases
J Nieto, MA Zapata
January-March 2010, 20(1):48-50
DOI:10.4103/0971-4065.62094  PMID:20535272
Patients under chronic dialysis treatment suffer from atherosclerotic disease and anemia more frequently than the normal population. This, together with the frequent hypotension, put these patients at increased risk for anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (AION), which may be bilateral and blinding. We present two cases of patients under chronic dialysis who developed bilateral AION after hypotensive events. Bilateral involvement is not unusual in renal replacement patients who suffer from AION. Efforts should be focused on prevention of this complication by improving anemia and blood pressure control because once established, treatment will probably be ineffective.
  3,055 199 7
Carotid intima-media thickness in children with end-stage renal disease on dialysis
A Gheissari, M Sirous, T Hajzargarbashi, R Kelishadi, A Merrikhi, A Azhir
January-March 2010, 20(1):29-33
DOI:10.4103/0971-4065.62095  PMID:20535268
Cardiovascular morbidity and mortality are common in end stage renal disease (ESRD) patients. There is scarce data on carotid and bulb intima-media thickness (IMT-C and IMT-B) as an early marker of atherosclerosis and related factors in children on hemodialysis (HD) and peritoneal dialysis (PD). Since we did not have enough information about our patients, this study was carried on all ESRD children (hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis) in a referral center. Data was collected from 16 ESRD children under 18 years with seven patients on PD and nine on HD. Lab tests and biochemical parameters including serum von Willebrand factor (vWF), homocystein, apo lipoprotein A, apo lipoprotein B and quantitative CRP were measured in fasting patients just before initiating dialysis. IMT-C and IMT-B were measured by gray scale ultrasound using 7.5 MHZ probe. The mean of age was 12.76 ± 4.5 years. The mean duration of dialysis in HD and PD patients were not significantly different; 11.88 ± 3.25 months and 10.14 ± 2.4 months respectively. Mean of systolic blood pressure in HD group was significantly higher than PD group, 135.55 ± 25.54 mmHg versus 121.42 ± 12.14 mmHg, P < 0.05. Significant differences among all following parameters in ESRD patients, with normal laboratory values, were clarified: cholesterol, triglycerides, apo A, apo B, quantitative CRP, VWF, homocystein and IMT-C. However, we could not demonstrate any difference between IMT-B in case and control group. After adjusting for age, partial correlation showed significant correlation between IMT-C and following factors: N-PTH and serum alkaline phosphatase. Longitudinal studies with large size samples are needed to clarify the contributing factors with intima-media thickness in ESRD children.
  2,557 219 -
Should ultrasound guided percutaneous renal biopsy in children be done in a day care setting?
V Mahajan, D Suri, A Saxena, R Nada
January-March 2010, 20(1):21-24
DOI:10.4103/0971-4065.62092  PMID:20535266
Percutaneous renal biopsy (PRB) is an important diagnostic tool in pediatric nephrology units. But controversy exists whether the procedure can be done in the day care setting. This study was done to document complications of PRB done with automated gun under continuous ultrasonographic guidance and to find whether the procedure can be undertaken as a day care procedure. Retrospective analysis of 67 PRBs is presented. A total of 44% ( n = 30) minor and 12% ( n = 8) major complications such as gross hematuria, perinephric hematoma, and hemodynamic instability were observed through the study period. All major and 90% of minor complications were detected within four hours in the current study. The procedure may be undertaken in the day care setting with strict pre and postprocedure monitoring up to eight hours in children with normal blood pressures, renal functions, hemoglobin concentrations, and coagulation parameters.
  2,583 180 3
Role of myofibroblasts and collagen type IV in patients of IgA nephropathy as markers of renal dysfunction
RW Minz, A Bakshi, S Chhabra, K Joshi, V Sakhuja
January-March 2010, 20(1):34-39
DOI:10.4103/0971-4065.62098  PMID:20535269
The aim was to evaluate the role of a-smooth muscle actin (SMA) and collagen type IV as markers of chronicity in renal biopsies of IgA nephropathy patients and to correlate the degree of their interstitial expression with renal function as judged by serum creatinine. Renal biopsies from 29 clinically, histologically and immunologically confirmed cases of IgA nephropathy were reviewed to assess activity and chronicity indices. Immunohistochemical stains for a-SMA and collagen type IV was performed on 23 patients with adequate tissue available in the block. The interstitial expression of α-SMA and collagen type IV was then correlated with chronicity and activity indices, serum creatinine and 24 hours urinary protein. Pearson's coefficient of correlation, unpaired-t test were used for statistical analysis. a-SMA and collagen type IV were shown to be expressed in the interstitium in all 22 cases showing interstitital fibrosis. Both showed a similar distribution pattern with predominant periglomerular and peritubular positivity. The cases were divided into two groups (low and high grade) depending on the percentage of interstitial area showing positivity for these two antibodies. On statistical analysis, the expression of both a-smooth muscle actin and collagen type IV showed a striking correlation with the histological chronicity index ( P < 0.01). A positive correlation was also noted with the serum creatinine at the time of diagnosis. It is seen that an immunohistochemical approach to grading interstitial fibrosis as in this study is far simpler than the histological grading systems prevalent and is an important baseline prognostic indicator.
  2,410 155 7
IJN is now PubMed indexed
Vinay Sakhuja
January-March 2010, 20(1):1-1
DOI:10.4103/0971-4065.62085  PMID:20535262
  2,148 228 -
Mycophenolic acid area under the curve recovery time following rifampicin withdrawal
VM Annapandian, DH Fleming, BS Mathew, GT John
January-March 2010, 20(1):51-53
DOI:10.4103/0971-4065.62091  PMID:20535273
Renal transplant patients prescribed mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) may require treatment for tuberculosis with a regimen including the tuberculocidal drug rifampicin. MMF is an ester prodrug which is rapidly hydrolysed to the active compound, mycophenolic acid (MPA). Therapeutic drug monitoring of mycophenolate involves the measurement of MPA area under the curve (MPA-AUC 0-12 ). Rifampicin is known to increase the metabolism and decrease enterohepatic recirculation of mycophenolic acid, (MPA). When MPA is monitored after the discontinuation of rifampicin, an important factor is the time required for the MPA area under the curve to return to the pre-rifampicin value. At present this is not known. This report describes one such renal allograft patient, on long term MMF and prescribed rifampicin by a local physician. As expected there was a clinically significant decrease in MPA-AUC 0-12 . Three weeks after rifampicin was discontinued the MPA-AUC 0-12 was still only 65% of the pre-rifampicin value and only 55% of the steady state MPA-AUC 0-12 measured six months later.
  2,039 179 -
Allograft and prostatic involvement in a renal transplant recipient with disseminated tuberculosis
P Sreejith, V Jha, HS Kohli, M Rathi, KL Gupta, V Sakhuja
January-March 2010, 20(1):40-42
DOI:10.4103/0971-4065.62097  PMID:20535270
Tuberculosis is a serious opportunistic infection in renal transplant recipients and is disseminated in nature in one-third of patients. Genito urinary tuberculosis is rare in renal transplant recipients. We report a patient presenting 5 years after renal transplantation with disseminated tuberculosis and allograft and prostatic involvement.
  1,964 165 4
Renal cysts in Caroli's disease
Y Lakshmi, B Vijaya Lakshmi Devi, S Sarala
January-March 2010, 20(1):54-54
DOI:10.4103/0971-4065.62089  PMID:20535274
  1,776 170 2
Indian Journal of Nephrology
Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow
Online since 20th Sept '07