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   2013| July-August  | Volume 23 | Issue 4  
    Online since July 4, 2013

 
 
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REVIEW ARTICLES
Basics of kidney biopsy: A nephrologist's perspective
SK Agarwal, S Sethi, AK Dinda
July-August 2013, 23(4):243-252
DOI:10.4103/0971-4065.114462  PMID:23960337
The introduction of the kidney biopsy is one of the major events in the history of nephrology. Primary indications of kidney biopsy are glomerular hematuria/proteinuria with or without renal dysfunction and unexplained renal failure. Kidney biopsy is usually performed in prone position but in certain situations, supine and lateral positions may be required. Biopsy needles have changed with times from Vim-Silverman needle to Tru-cut needle to spring-loaded automatic gun. The procedure has also changed from blind bedside kidney biopsy to ultrasound marking to real-time ultrasound guidance to rarely computerized tomography guidance and laparoscopic and open biopsy. In very specific situations, transjugular kidney biopsy may be required. Most of the centers do kidney biopsy on short 1-day admission, whereas some take it as an outdoor procedure. For critical interpretation of kidney biopsy, adequate sample and clinical information are mandatory. Tissue needs to be stained with multiple stains for delineation of various components of kidney tissue. Many consider that electron microscopy (EM) is a must for all kidney biopsies, but facilities for EM are limited even in big centers. Sophisticated tests such as immunohistochemistry and in-situ hybridization are useful adjuncts for definitive diagnosis in certain situations.
  10,090 840 1
CASE REPORTS
Acute oxalate nephropathy due to 'Averrhoa bilimbi' fruit juice ingestion
G Bakul, VN Unni, NV Seethaleksmy, A Mathew, R Rajesh, G Kurien, J Rajesh, PM Jayaraj, DS Kishore, PP Jose
July-August 2013, 23(4):297-300
DOI:10.4103/0971-4065.114481  PMID:23960349
Irumban puli (Averrhoa bilimbi) is commonly used as a traditional remedy in the state of Kerala. Freshly made concentrated juice has a very high oxalic acid content and consumption carries a high risk of developing acute renal failure (ARF) by deposition of calcium oxalate crystals in renal tubules. Acute oxalate nephropathy (AON) due to secondary oxalosis after consumption of Irumban puli juice is uncommon. AON due to A. bilimbi has not been reported before. We present a series of ten patients from five hospitals in the State of Kerala who developed ARF after intake of I. puli fruit juice. Seven patients needed hemodialysis whereas the other three improved with conservative management.
  6,709 206 1
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Allopurinol for prevention of progression of kidney disease with hyperuricemia
B.H. Santhosh Pai, G Swarnalatha, R Ram, KV Dakshinamurty
July-August 2013, 23(4):280-286
DOI:10.4103/0971-4065.114499  PMID:23960345
Hyperuricemia is associated with hypertension and progressive chronic renal disease. This is a retrospective cohort study in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients with hyperuricemia from 1998 to 2008. Patients were divided into two groups: treatment group who received allopurinol in a dose of 100 mg/day and the other group remained untreated. Clinical, hematologic, biochemical parameters and outcome were measured at baseline and 6 months, 1 year, and 2 years of treatment. A total of 183 patients were enrolled. Mean age of the allopurinol group was 50.15 ± 14.42 years and control group was 53.23 ± 13.86 years. Male-female ratios were 2.57:1 and 2.21:1 for the treatment and control groups, respectively. Baseline characteristics and the laboratory parameters were similar in both groups. Patients who received allopurinol had lower blood pressure at 6 months, 1 year, and 2 years when compared to baseline. There was a significant decrease in the serum uric acid (UA) levels in the treatment group at the end of 6 months, 1 year, and 2 years with respect to base line. An inverse correlation as noted between serum UA levels and the estimated glomerular filtration rate at 6 months, 1 year, and 2 years. Allopurinol treatment decreases blood UA levels and is associated with better blood pressure control and decreased progression of renal disease in CKD patients with hyperuricemia.
  4,256 269 2
CASE REPORTS
Acute interstitial nephritis due to proton pump inhibitors
K Sampathkumar, R Ramalingam, A Prabakar, A Abraham
July-August 2013, 23(4):304-307
DOI:10.4103/0971-4065.114487  PMID:23960351
Proton pump inhibitors (PPI) are commonly prescribed for dyspepsia and acid peptic disease. Acute interstitial nephritis (AIN) is an uncommon though important side-effect of these classes of drugs. We describe four cases: three females and one male. PPIs implicated were pantoprazole in two, omeprazole and esomeprazole in one each. AIN developed after an average period of 4 weeks of drug therapy. The symptoms were vomiting, loin pain, and oliguria. Minimal proteinuria with pyuria were seen and the mean serum creatinine was 4.95 ± 4 mg/dl. Two patients required hemodialysis. Renal biopsy showed interstitial mononuclear, plasma cell and eosinophilic infiltrates in all cases. PPI was stopped and steroids were started in all. Renal recovery was total in two and partial in two. A high index of suspicion is required to diagnose PPI induced AIN. Renal biopsy for confirmation followed up by prompt steroid therapy results in renal functional improvement.
  3,959 229 1
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Melatonin improves sleep quality in hemodialysis patients
M Edalat-Nejad, F Haqhverdi, T Hossein-Tabar, M Ahmadian
July-August 2013, 23(4):264-269
DOI:10.4103/0971-4065.114488  PMID:23960341
Disturbed sleep is common in end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Exogenous melatonin has somniferous properties in normal subjects and can improve sleep quality (SQ) in several clinical conditions. Recent studies have shown that melatonin may play a role in improving sleep in patients undergoing dialysis. The goal of the present study was to assess the effect of exogenous melatonin administration on SQ improvement in daytime hemodialysis patients. Lipid profile and the required dose of erythropoietin (EPO) are also reported as secondary outcomes. In a 6-week randomized, double-blind cross-over clinical trial, 3 mg melatonin or placebo was administered to 68 patients at bedtime. A 72-h washout preceded the switch from melatonin to placebo, or vice versa. SQ was assessed by the Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI). Sixty-eight patients completed the study protocol and were included in the final analysis. Melatonin treatment significantly improved the global PSQI scores ( P < 0.001), particularly subjective SQ ( P < 0.001), sleep efficiency ( P = 0.005) and sleep duration ( P < 0.001). No differences in sleep latency and daytime sleepiness were observed. Melatonin also increased the high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol ( P = 0.003). The need for EPO prescription decreased after melatonin treatment ( P < 0.001). We conclude that melatonin can improve sleep in ESRD. The modest increase in HDL cholesterol and decrease in the EPO requirement are other benefits associated with this treatment
  3,449 178 2
CASE REPORTS
Acute renal failure secondary to ingestion of ayurvedic medicine containing mercury
K Sathe, U Ali, A Ohri
July-August 2013, 23(4):301-303
DOI:10.4103/0971-4065.114485  PMID:23960350
Several traditional medicines contain potentially toxic heavy metals. Heavy metal poisoning is not an uncommon cause of renal damage, although the diagnosis can be easily missed. We report a case of chronic ingestion of an ayurvedic medicine containing mercury in a 2-year-old girl, resulting in anuric renal failure due to acute interstitial nephritis.
  3,345 141 3
Oxalate nephropathy: An important cause of renal failure after bariatric surgery
SP Nagaraju, A Gupta, B McCormick
July-August 2013, 23(4):316-318
DOI:10.4103/0971-4065.114493  PMID:23960354
Obesity is a major public health issue all over the world. Bariatric surgery is increasingly becoming popular as a surgical treatment for morbid obesity. Nephrologists need to be aware of possible renal complications after bariatric surgery. We report a 54-year-old male patient who presented with progressive worsening of renal function following a duodenal switch procedure for morbid obesity, and he was found to have oxalate nephropathy on renal biopsy.
  2,982 112 -
IgG4 related interstitial nephritis: A case report and review of literature
N Gopalakrishnan, A Abraham, T Balasubramaniyan, T Dineshkumar, J Dhanapriya, N Malathy, M Haris, ND Srinivasa Prasad
July-August 2013, 23(4):308-311
DOI:10.4103/0971-4065.114489  PMID:23960352
IgG4 interstitial nephritis is a recently described entity. A middle-aged gentleman with bilateral parotid enlargement, hepatosplenomegaly and generalized lymphadenopathy was referred to us for evaluation of renal failure. He had trace proteinuria and large kidneys. Kidney biopsy revealed interstitial nephritis with characteristic storiform fibrosis. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated intense staining for IgG4-secreting plasma cells in the interstitium.
  2,414 147 -
Renal disease masquerading as pyrexia of unknown origin
D Korivi, V Billa, K Patel, C Madiwale
July-August 2013, 23(4):312-315
DOI:10.4103/0971-4065.114491  PMID:23960353
Pyrexia of unknown origin is a challenging clinical problem. Infections, malignancies, and connective tissue diseases form the major etiologies for this condition. We report a case of a 57-year-old diabetic male who presented with fever of unknown origin for several months. The course of investigations led to a kidney biopsy which clinched the cause of his fever as well as the underlying diagnosis. The light microscopy findings of expansile storiform fibrosis with a dense inflammatory infiltrate suggested the diagnosis which was confirmed by positive staining of Immunoglobulin G4, the dense lympho-plasmacytic infiltrate and elevated serum IgG4 concentrations. A course of steroids followed by mycophenolate mofetil as maintenance immunosuppression rendered the patient afebrile with improvement of renal function.
  2,309 83 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Spectrum of lymphoproliferative disorders following renal transplantation in North India
V Sakhuja, R Ramachandran, HS Kohli, V Jha, KL Gupta, M Rathi, K Joshi, R Nada, A Sharma, M Minz
July-August 2013, 23(4):287-291
DOI:10.4103/0971-4065.114504  PMID:23960346
Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) is a well-recognized, but uncommon complication of organ transplantation. This study was a retrospective analysis of 2000 patients who underwent renal transplantation over a period of 30 years (1980-2010). Forty malignancies were diagnosed in 36 patients. Of these, 29 patients (1.45%) had PTLD (7 females, 22 males) accounting for 72.5% of all malignancies after transplantation. Twenty-two (75.8%) developed non-Hodgkin lymphoma and seven patients (24.2%) had myeloma. Diagnosis was made by biopsy of the involved organ in 21 patients (72.4%) and aspiration cytology in five patients (17.2%). In three patients, the diagnosis was made only at autopsy. Mean age at the time of diagnosis of PTLD was 41.9 years (range 21-69 years). Time interval from transplantation to the diagnosis of PTLD ranged from 3 months to 144 months with a median of 48 months. Only five patients (17.2%) developed PTLD within a year of transplantation. Twelve patients developed PTLD 1-5 years and 12 patients 5-10 years after transplantation. Organ involvement was extra nodal in 18 patients (82%). Thirteen (59%) patients had disseminated disease and nine (41%) had localized involvement of a single organ (brain-3, liver-1, allograft-1, perigraft node-1, retroperitoneal lymph nodes-3). Infiltration of the graft was noted in two patients. Patients with myeloma presented with backache, pathological fracture, unexplained anemia or graft dysfunction. PTLD was of B cell origin in 20 cases (70%). CD 20 staining was performed in 10 recent cases, of which 8 stained positive. Of the 26 patients diagnosed during life, 20 (69%) died within 1 year of diagnosis despite therapy. In conclusion, PTLD is encountered late after renal transplantation in the majority of our patients and is associated with a dismal outcome. The late onset in the majority of patients suggests that it is unlikely to be Epstein Barr virus related.
  2,238 141 -
The short-term impact of protocol biopsies in a live-related renal transplant program using tacrolimus based immunosuppression
S Guleria, S Jain, AK Dinda, S Mahajan, S Gupta, NK Mehra
July-August 2013, 23(4):253-258
DOI:10.4103/0971-4065.114474  PMID:23960339
The aim of the study was to assess the impact of protocol biopsies in a live-related renal transplant program using tacrolimus-based immunosuppression in the short term. Eighty-three live-related transplant recipients were randomly allocated to protocol biopsy group (Group I, n = 40) and a control group (Group II, n = 43). Other immunosuppressants in these groups consisted of either mycophenolate mofetil or azathioprine and steroids. Protocol biopsies were conducted in biopsy group at 1, 6, and 12 months post-transplant. The non-biopsy group was followed by serial serum creatinine and biopsies in them were conducted as and when clinically indicated. Both groups were analyzed at 12 months with respect to graft function and survival. The two groups were similar with respect to age, number of dialysis pre-operatively, tacrolimus levels, induction therapy, donor age, and donor glomerular filtration rate. Forty protocol biopsies were conducted at 1 month, 31 at 6 months, and 26 at 12 months. The prevalence of sub-clinical rejection at 1, 6, and 12 months in these biopsies was 17.5%, 11.2%, and 10.3%, respectively. The prevalence of calcineurin inhibitor toxicity during same period was 15%, 15.5%, and 14.4%, respectively. The cumulative rejection rate in Group I and Group II at 12-month follow-up was 10.3% and 11.3% ( P = 0.78), respectively, and cumulative calcineurin inhibitor toxicity at 12 months was 14.4% and 9.3% ( P = 0.59), respectively, were not statistically significant. There was no difference in graft survival and function at 1 year. Protocol biopsies have a limited role in a well-matched renal transplant program with tacrolimus-based immunosuppression in the short term. However, the long-term impact of protocol biopsies needs further evaluation.
  2,211 150 -
No detection of Helicobacter pylori in atherosclerotic plaques in end stage renal disease patients undergoing kidney transplantation
H Ahmadnia, H Vossoughinia, E Mansourian, K Gaffarzadegan
July-August 2013, 23(4):259-263
DOI:10.4103/0971-4065.114483  PMID:23960340
Chronic infection known to be a predisposing factor for the development of atherosclerosis. Several studies have found a possible role of Helicobacter pylori in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of H. pylori in atherosclerotic plaques in iliac arteries in 25 end stage renal disease (ESRD) patients undergoing kidney transplantation. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy was performed in all patients before transplantation. Biopsy specimens obtained from gastric antrum were sent for pathologic evaluation. Gastric H. pylori infection was confirmed by microscopic assessment and rapid urease test. Arterial specimens were obtained from iliac arteries during kidney transplantation. Presence of H. pylori DNA in atherosclerotic plaques and healthy vessel samples was evaluated by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The mean age of patients was 44.1 ± 22.6 years. Risk factors in patients with atherosclerosis were hypertension (68%), diabetes mellitus (20%), hyperlipidemia (20%), positive family history (16%). Atherosclerotic plaques were found in 21 (84%) patients. PCR analysis did not detect H. pylori in any case. There was a significant relationship of atherosclerosis with hypertension ( P = 0.006) but not with diabetes mellitus and hyperlipidemia ( P = 0.5). There was no significant relationship between atherosclerosis and gastric H. pylori infection ( P = 0.6). This study revealed no association between the presence of H. pylori as a pathogen of vessel walls and atherosclerosis in ESRD.
  2,203 87 2
"Ico-Alone" single nocturnal exchange to initiate peritoneal dialysis in patients with residual renal function-Five year, single centre experience
T Jeloka, P Sanwaria, L Chaudhari, A Periera
July-August 2013, 23(4):276-279
DOI:10.4103/0971-4065.114496  PMID:23960344
We analyzed the outcome of incremental dialysis with single nocturnal icodextrin exchange peritoneal dialysis (PD) as the initial treatment for end-stage kidney failure in patients who have significant residual renal function. All adult patients opting for PD as renal replacement therapy, having residual renal function, and urinary KT/V of 1.0 were offered incremental dialysis with single nocturnal icodextrin exchange as initial treatment. Adequacy of dialysis was calculated at 1, 3, and 6 months and then 6 monthly. Patients were shifted to conventional PD if short of adequacy or if clinically indicated. Median period on "Ico-alone," peritonitis, exit site infection rates, and patient survival, while on this protocol, were calculated. These outcomes were compared with the cohort of contemporary patients on conventional PD. Thirteen patients were initiated on "Ico-alone" dialysis between October 2006 and October 2011. The baseline characteristics were similar when compared with cohort of conventional PD patients, except urine volume, which was more in "Ico-alone" group (1265 ± 316 vs. 551 ± 504, P = 0.000). Total KT/V at 3 months (1.63 ± 0.6 vs. 1.7 ± 0.2, P = 0.6) and at 1 year (1.64 ± 0.5 vs. 1.53 ± 0.3, P = 0.6) was similar to the cohort of conventional PD patients. Median period on "Ico-alone" was 9.6 months. Peritonitis rate was 1 episode in 56.22 vs 25.29 patient-months and exit site infection was 1 episode in 56.2 vs 189.71 patient-months in "Ico-alone" and conventional group, respectively. Patient survival was 42.84 months in "Ico-alone' vs 25.29 months in conventional dialysis ( P = 0.01). In conclusion, single icodextrin exchange offers adequate dialysis in patients with residual renal function (KT/V = 1) for a median period of 9 months.
  2,152 70 -
Efficacy and safety of oral doxercalciferol in the management of secondary hyperparathyroidism in chronic kidney disease stage 4
PC Dheerendra, V Sakhuja, HS Kohli, V Jha
July-August 2013, 23(4):271-275
DOI:10.4103/0971-4065.114492  PMID:23960343
This study was carried out to evaluate the efficacy and safety of doxercalciferol as therapy for secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) stage 4 in a prospective clinical trial. A total of 35 CKD-4 patients who had a baseline parathyroid hormone (iPTH) >150 pg/mL and had not received any vitamin D analog in the preceding 8 weeks were followed up at intervals of 6 weeks for 18 weeks on oral therapy with doxercalciferol. The starting dose was 1.5 μg/day, and the dose was increased in steps of 1 μg/day if iPTH did not decrease by at least 30% on the subsequent visit. Doxercalciferol was stopped temporarily if low iPTH (<70 pg/mL), hypercalcemia (>10.7 mg/dL), or severe hyperphosphatemia (>8.0 mg/dL) occurred, and was restarted at a lower dose on reversal of these abnormalities. Calcium acetate was the only phosphate binder used. Mean iPTH decreased by 35.4 ± 4.4% from 381.7 ± 31.3 pg/mL to 237.9 ± 25.7 pg/mL (P < 0.001). The proportion of patients who achieved 30% and 50% suppression of iPTH levels was 83% and 72%, respectively. Mean serum calcium, phosphorus, and calcium-phosphorus product values did not differ significantly from the baseline values. Four, two, and nine patients developed hypercalcemia, severe hyperphosphatemia, and high CaxP (>55), respectively. Almost all patients recovered to an acceptable level within 2 weeks of stopping doxercalciferol and adjusting the phosphate binder dose. In all, 21 patients required temporary stoppage of therapy. Most of them were restarted on therapy at a reduced dose during the study. It can, therefore, be concluded that doxercalciferol is effective in controlling SHPT in CKD-4 patients with an acceptable risk of hyperphosphatemia and hypercalcemia.
  2,024 119 -
CASE REPORTS
Type IV renal tubular acidosis following resolution of acute kidney injury and disseminated intravascular coagulation due to hump-nosed viper bite
S Karunarathne, Y Udayakumara, D Govindapala, H Fernando
July-August 2013, 23(4):294-296
DOI:10.4103/0971-4065.114476  PMID:23960348
Hump-nosed viper bite can cause acute kidney injury (AKI) and disseminated intravascular coagulation. In some patients, it can cause chronic kidney disease necessitating life-long renal replacement therapy. Lack of effective antivenom makes the management of these patients difficult. A 51-year-old Sri Lankan male was admitted with AKI and disseminated intravascular coagulation following a hump-nosed viper bite. He made a complete recovery with blood product support and hemodialysis. Renal biopsy was performed as his renal recovery was prolonged which revealed patchy tubular atrophy and interstitial inflammation suggestive of subacute interstitial nephritis. Later, he presented with hyperkalemic paralysis and acidosis. A diagnosis of late onset type 4 renal tubular acidosis was made and he responded well to a course of fludrocortisone.
  1,920 101 1
Acute renal failure as an initial manifestation of acute lymphoblastic leukemia
NG Bhatia, LM Sneha, SM Selvan, J. J. X. Scott
July-August 2013, 23(4):292-293
DOI:10.4103/0971-4065.114472  PMID:23960347
Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the most common malignancy in children. Acute renal failure is a well-recognized complication of ALL after initiation of chemotherapy. Renal failure as the primary manifestation of ALL is rare. Here, we report three children who presented with acute renal failure and hyperuricemia and were subsequently diagnosed to have ALL.
  1,920 88 -
LETTERS TO EDITOR
Ten year follow up of erythropoietin induced autoimmune pure red cell aplasia
R Ram, G Swarnalatha, P Nageswar Reddy, C Shyam Sundar Rao, G Diwakar Naidu, S Sriram, KV Dakshinamurty
July-August 2013, 23(4):323-324
DOI:10.4103/0971-4065.114500  PMID:23960359
  1,630 83 1
IMAGES IN NEPHROLOGY
Indigo color urine in hemodialysis patient
P Nasa, A Gupta, S Jain, M Khanal
July-August 2013, 23(4):319-319
DOI:10.4103/0971-4065.114494  PMID:23960355
  1,527 118 -
COMMENTARY
On dialysis, sleep and melatonin
U Sharma
July-August 2013, 23(4):269-270
PMID:23960342
  1,555 86 -
LETTERS TO EDITOR
An unusual cause of acute deterioration in a chronic kidney disease patient
V Srilatha, S Ravishankar, S Gowrishankar
July-August 2013, 23(4):320-321
DOI:10.4103/0971-4065.114495  PMID:23960356
  1,420 92 -
Congenital mesoblastic nephroma: A rare cause of recurrent hematuria beyond infancy
K Saurabh, R Yadav, S Sharma, R Gupta
July-August 2013, 23(4):322-323
DOI:10.4103/0971-4065.114498  PMID:23960358
  1,458 54 -
Polycythemia in hepatits C seropositive end stage renal disease patients: Role of insulin like growth factor 1
S Varma
July-August 2013, 23(4):321-322
DOI:10.4103/0971-4065.114497  PMID:23960357
  1,279 67 -
Need for parenteral pyridoxine: A clarion call
S Senthilkumaran, SS David, RG Menezes, P Thirumalaikolundusubramanian
July-August 2013, 23(4):324-325
DOI:10.4103/0971-4065.114501  PMID:23960360
  1,271 52 -
ERRATUM
Erratum

July-August 2013, 23(4):252-252
  1,033 45 -
Indian Journal of Nephrology
Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow
Online since 20th Sept '07