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Figure 3: (a-d): Accessory vein embolization. (a) Fistulogram shows retrograde filling of radial artery (arrow) with juxta-anastomotic stenosis. (b) Post balloon angioplasty check run shows that AVF flow but diverted into collateral veins via large accessory vein (arrowhead). (c and d) Accessory vein coiling (arrow, c) with restoration of flow in cephalic vein (white arrow, d). (e-h) Flow reduction procedure. (e) Left brachiocephalic vein occlusion, failed recanalization via jugular (white arrow) and femoral (black arrow) routes. (f) Fistulogram shows normal flow across left BCF. (g) Vascular plug deployed in outflow vein at the juxta-anastomotic segment (inset with star). (h) Post partial embolization fistulogram shows forward flow suggestive of patent AVF

Figure 3: (a-d): Accessory vein embolization. (a) Fistulogram shows retrograde filling of radial artery (arrow) with juxta-anastomotic stenosis. (b) Post balloon angioplasty check run shows that AVF flow but diverted into collateral veins via large accessory vein (arrowhead). (c and d) Accessory vein coiling (arrow, c) with restoration of flow in cephalic vein (white arrow, d). (e-h) Flow reduction procedure. (e) Left brachiocephalic vein occlusion, failed recanalization via jugular (white arrow) and femoral (black arrow) routes. (f) Fistulogram shows normal flow across left BCF. (g) Vascular plug deployed in outflow vein at the juxta-anastomotic segment (inset with star). (h) Post partial embolization fistulogram shows forward flow suggestive of patent AVF